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Europe/Germany : Deutsches Reich / German Empire

 

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HockeyNut
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23 Nov 2022
08:53:57am
It has been awhile but here another thread about the german empire.

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23 Nov 2022
08:55:27am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

German Empire (German: Deutsches Reich)
was the official name of Germany from 1871 to 1945. The term can also be used for the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806) and the unitary state that tried to bring about the revolution within the German Confederation in the years 1848 and 1849.

Introduction
Since Charlemagne was crowned 'Roman emperor' in 800, his successors continued to use that title. This they emphasized in later centuries by calling their territories, originally the Frankish Empire, the 'Holy Roman Empire'. The designation "Roman Empire" referred to the earlier Roman Empire, which the Frankish rulers believed they had continued, and the additional designation "Holy" referred to its Christian character. Furthermore, there was the pretension that the emperor would be the equal secular monarch of all Christendom next to the pope as the prelate of the church. France and Great Britain gradually took less and less notice of this view, as a result of which the Empire increasingly became a 'German' Empire, to which the Netherlands, Bohemia, Northern Italy and parts of Burgundy also belonged for a long time. Since the 15th century, therefore, the name of the empire was often supplemented with the delimiting addition "of the German Nation": Heiliges Römisches Reich deutscher Nation. In 1806, under pressure from Napoleon Bonaparte, the then and last emperor Francis II proceeded to dissolve the empire.

In April 1848, the Frankfurt Parliament, the German national assembly, was elected. His task was to draft a new constitution. The existing German Confederation was revolutionary reformed into the German Reich, a unitary state with a provisional head of state and a Reich government. After the Prussian coup d'état, the National Assembly came to an end in May/June 1849; the Reich government under Reichsverweser Erzherzog Johann continued until December 20, 1849.

The economic cohesion between the various German states increased in the course of the 19th century. In 1867, under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian prime minister, they founded a North German Confederation. The parliament of this federal state was called Reichstag. During the war against France in 1870/71, the southern German states also joined the league, which was now called Deutsches Reich (see German Empire). The Prussian king became Deutscher Kaiser. Austria remained outside the new empire.

The state, founded in 1867, became a republic in 1918/1919 through a new constitution. For the period from 1919-1933 one speaks of the Weimar Republic, for the period from 1933 of National Socialist Germany ('Nazi Germany') or also “Drittes Reich”. In constitutional law, however, the name for Germany changed in 1943 to Greater German Reich.

In 1945, the empire became incapacitated because the four victors of the Second World War took over government power. Delegates of the German states occupied by the US, UK and France founded the Bundesrepublik Deutschland in 1949 with the Grundgesetz. According to German jurisprudence and the Constitutional Court, the Federal Republic is identical with the German state established in 1867, no successor state. Laws and international treaties from the time of 1867-1949 are still valid (pre-constitutional law, Art. 123 Grundgesetz).

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23 Nov 2022
08:57:10am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

The German Empire 1871-1918

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Establishment
Prussia and its allies fought in the German War of 1866 against Austria and the other states of southern Germany. After the victory, Prussia established a federal state, the North German Confederation, with a large number of northern and central German states. Despite the name, this was a federal state with a constitutional monarchy. Prussia was the dominant power within the federation, with the Prussian king as the Bundespräsidium, effectively the head of state.

During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871, the remaining southern German states joined the North German Confederation. Baden, Bavaria, Württemberg and Hessen-Darmstadt signed treaties with the North German Confederation, the so-called “Novemberverträge”. Despite the rhetoric in the treaties, which spoke of the establishment (= Gründung) of a new German Confederation, it was about joining an existing federal state.

On this occasion, the federal state received a new constitution twice. The constitution of January 1, 1870 already mentioned the accession of Baden and Hesse and changed the name of the federal state to German Reich. The Federal Presidency (= Bundespräsidium) or the Prussian king was given another title: “Deutscher Kaiser”. These new terms were approved by the Reichstag and Bundesrat, the legislative bodies of the North German Confederation, on 8/9 December 1870.

On January 18, 1871, most of the German monarchs gathered in Versailles, the German headquarters in France. They hailed King Wilhelm I of Prussia as emperor, who had recently refused to accept that title. However, he had already had this title since January 1 due to the new constitution. Erroneously, the Emperor Proclamation of Versailles ( = Kaiserproklamation von Versailles) was later celebrated as the Founding Date ( = Reichsgründungstag) of the German Reich.

The constitution was already outdated, because Württemberg had ratified the accession treaty just in December. Bavaria followed, with retroactive effect, on January 29. Also, some terms in the constitution had not yet been adapted to the new name of the federal state. The newly elected Reichstag (March 1871) therefore soon accepted a new constitution, which was adopted on April 16 and came into force on May 4. Since then, for example, the Federal Chancellor was really the Reich Chancellor. Chancellor remained Otto von Bismarck; despite the new title, a reappointment was not necessary because the federal state was the same.

From May 1871 Alsace-Lorraine also belonged to the German Reich as a kind of protectorate or “Reichsland”. From 1884, Germany also had several colonies in Africa and Asia.

The constitution of 1867 described a political system that was hardly changed despite the changes in 1870/1871. The new state was described quite summarily because the founders were in a hurry. The actual construction of the new state followed in the period 1867-1878, thanks to Bismarck's cooperation with the national-liberal and liberal-conservative dominated Reichstag. The German Empire developed prosperously in the economic, scientific/technical and military fields and even took over the leadership from Great Britain, but politically Germany was still dominated by the aristocratic/conservative elite. Due to the mutual competition of the European superpowers, a major confrontation became more and more inevitable and in 1914 the First World War broke out. In Germany, the ruling aristocracy became increasingly unpopular during the war and in October 1918, more than two weeks before the end of the monarchical system, the emperor and conservatives agreed to a constitutional amendment that required the Reichstag to have the confidence of the Reichstag. Thus, the parliamentarianism that had become a practice since 1917/1918 was also given legal status.

End
On November 9, 1918, Chancellor Max von Baden was afraid that an angry mob in Berlin was about to take over power. He had therefore asked the unpopular Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate. But a clear answer from the Emperor, who was staying at the German headquarters in Belgium, was not forthcoming, and eventually von Baden announced the abdication of the Emperor and Crown Prince on his own initiative. Von Baden handed over his office to the leader of the right wing of the Social Democrats, Friedrich Ebert, because his faction was the largest in the Reichstag. However, such a transfer was not valid under the old constitution. Ebert, a moderate socialist, initially wanted to further transform the political system into a full-fledged parliamentary monarchy and place a capable replacement for the deposed emperor on the throne. But on that same day, leading socialist Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the republic to precede the communists who wanted to do the same.
Ebert set up a transitional body, the “Rat der Volksbeauftragten”. This body of left and right social democrats controlled the government and prevented the meeting of the Reichstag and Bundesrat. In January 1919, De Rat allowed the German people to elect a new national assembly that met in the city of Weimar.


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23 Nov 2022
08:58:20am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

The German Empire between 1919 and 1937 (Weimar republic)

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After the fall of the monarchy, a democratic republic was proclaimed by social democrats, later informally called the Weimar Republic after the city where the constitution was promulgated. When the final peace treaty with the Allies was signed, the Peace of Versailles, the German Empire had to give up a large part of its territory, mainly to Poland and France. And Germany's military and economic power was also severely curtailed in the peace treaty by the dismantling of most of the army and huge reparations to the victors. From the outset, the new republic had to contend with the instability and chaos of post-war Germany, exacerbated by the harsh provisions of the peace treaty. During this period, prices for food and other necessities rose rapidly, pushing a large part of the population into poverty. This created a lot of unrest and dissatisfaction among the German people, which led to radicalization on the right and left, in which the two camps literally fought each other in the street with left- and right-wing radical thugs. In the later 1920s, the country became more stable and the economy also improved, so that unemployment fell and people voted for the more moderate middle parties again. The country seemed to have entered calmer waters. But this came to an abrupt end with the stock market crash of 1929, which collapsed the global economy and caused mass unemployment. Chaos returned to the streets and desperately sought a 'strong man' who would clean up the political and economic mess and restore order and discipline. In the early 1930s, Adolf Hitler became increasingly popular among voters and eventually his NSDAP came to power. Almost immediately after taking office in January 1933, Hitler finally killed the already shaky democracy of the Weimar Republic (see Gleichschaltung) and turned Germany into a totalitarian dictatorship. Historiography usually ends the period of the Weimar Republic with this.


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23 Nov 2022
08:59:27am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Nazi Germany (1933-1945)

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Even during the National Socialist regime, the name of the German Reich remained. The propaganda term Third Reich was only used for a short time.

Hitler made Germany more of a unitary state by systematically weakening the powers of the individual states. The Imperial Council (Reichsrat), the organ of the federated states, was abolished. In August 1934, after the death of Reich President Hindenburg, Hitler united the office of Reich President with that of Reich Chancellor and since then called himself Führer und Reichskanzler. The Reichstag consisted only of members of the National Socialist party and a few non-party guests. Opponents of the regime and certain minorities such as Jews were oppressed and murdered.

Before 1940, Austria with the Anschluss and the Czech Republic were annexed to the German Reich with the Munich Agreement without the need for war. But with his continued aggressive foreign policy, Hitler inevitably headed for war, which began with the attack on Poland in 1939 (see also the article on World War II). Germany overran a large part of Europe in this, but when Hitler wanted to destroy the Soviet Union in 1941 in order to obtain lebensraum for Germany, he set his sights too high. Initially, in the first months of the attack, Germany seemed to bring the Soviet Union to its knees, but by December a stalemate had developed. However, Hitler refused to accept peace proposals from the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin. Over the next few years, Hitler's allied opponents, mainly the British, Americans and Soviets, slowly pushed the German armies back into Germany. In the meantime, in 1943, Hitler had officially rejoined the German Reich not only the areas ceded since 1919, but also large areas that originally lay outside it, such as parts of the dissolved Poland and Czechoslovakia in the east and Luxembourg in the west.

This whole was now referred to as the Greater German Reich. However, this never became official. Greater German referred to the 19th century political current the Greater German direction that sought a unification of all German-speaking areas of Europe. With the Anschluss (1938) of Austria, Hitler had already largely realized this ideal. The Greater German Reich only lasted for a short time, namely until 1945, when a catastrophic defeat finally followed in which the entire (Greater) German Reich was occupied by the Allies. On May 8, 1945, the German armed forces capitulated, and on May 23, the last German Reich government was arrested. The western part of Germany was occupied by the Americans, French and British, the eastern part by the Soviet Union.

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23 Nov 2022
09:14:43am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Watermarks German Empire / Weimar republic / Third Reich :

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Difference between "Kleines Burstschild" and "Grosser Burstschild"

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23 Nov 2022
09:20:12am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Michelnumber 1-11 (Kleine Brustschild)

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Michelnumber 12-13

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Michelnumber 14-15

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23 Nov 2022
09:37:24am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Michel 16-28 (Grosser Burstschield)

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16, 17a and 18

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19, 20 and 21a

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22, 23a and 24

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25, 26 and 27a

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28


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23 Nov 2022
09:40:49am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 29 and 30



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Michel 31-36

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24 Nov 2022
02:35:46pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 37b

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Michel 37e

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Michel 38

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24 Nov 2022
02:39:13pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 39-44

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Michel 45-50

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Michel 52

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24 Nov 2022
02:44:01pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 53-66 Inschrift REICHSPOST


I have a lot of trouble with my scanner and my new computer......

In the next days I will try to scan the images first and then post them here.

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25 Nov 2022
09:30:10am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 68 - 82A (WITHOUT WATERMARK)


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Michel 83 - 97A I (Friedensdruck) (WITH WATERMARK)


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Michel 84 - 93 II (Kriegsdruck) (WITH WATERMARK)


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Michel 94 - 97B II (Kriegsdruck) (WITH WATERMARK)


I = Friedensdruck
Stamps made with peace materials, clear print on glossy artinated paper, central piece mostly glossy, watermark clearly visible, matt gum, finely fractured and white

II = Kriegsdruck
Stamps made with war material, unclear print on dull raw paper, central piece mostly dull, watermark poorly visible, gum shiny and smooth

Catalog difference between A and B :

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So count the perforation holes on the top op the stamps.

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25 Nov 2022
10:18:32am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Flugpost am Rhein und Main


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Michel I, II and III and IV and VI (do not have number V)


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Flugpostkarte



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Certificate of IV (Gelber Hund)

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26 Nov 2022
08:03:35am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 98-100
Michel 101a
Michel 102-104

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26 Nov 2022
08:05:15am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

From here on the stamps are from the Weimar Republic

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Michel 105-106
Michel 107-110
Michel 111a- 112a

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26 Nov 2022
08:18:19am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Well it is easier for me to scan the whole album pages.
The down side is that you can only see the unused stamps.

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26 Nov 2022
08:29:23am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

And for the real sleuths among us. Gepr means Certified

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26 Nov 2022
08:30:37am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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26 Nov 2022
08:38:39am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Other note :
* means Unused
** means MNH
0 means stamped

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26 Nov 2022
08:46:55am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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26 Nov 2022
08:58:32am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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176a Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
12:29:49pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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26 Nov 2022
12:41:20pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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243a Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
12:50:00pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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256c Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
01:01:23pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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261a Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
01:18:58pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Emergency spending of hyperinflation
August 24 to November 30, 1923


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290 = 100 tausend auf 400 mark (hellgrun)


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300 = 400 tausend auf 40 Pfg (Ockerbraun)

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26 Nov 2022
01:35:15pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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312Ab 2 Millionen auf 5000 Mark Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
01:50:00pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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329A = 20 Millarden Mark


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337 = 10 Millarden auf 100 Millionen Mark

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28 Nov 2022
07:15:36am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Flugpost ausgaben :

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265 = 25 Mark holztaube

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28 Nov 2022
07:17:06am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:17:50am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:18:35am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:19:25am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:20:11am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:23:01am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Block 1 ( Iposta 1930 )

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28 Nov 2022
07:23:55am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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01 Dec 2022
01:14:31pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

To all those here on the forum who have sent me compliments via private messages.
Thank you for the responses and complements.

And now more.......

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01 Dec 2022
01:17:34pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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All with watermark : WZ 2

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01 Dec 2022
01:18:44pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

FLUGPOST stamps

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01 Dec 2022
01:22:32pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

And of course the Zeppelin stamps. All are genuine and experticed, except the last row.

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01 Dec 2022
01:28:03pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

And now the official stamps from that era :

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Michel number 22 gepruft


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Michel number 32 gepruft

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01 Dec 2022
01:29:15pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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01 Dec 2022
01:31:32pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel number 56


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Michel number 73

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01 Dec 2022
01:33:34pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel number 78


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Michel number 90

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01 Dec 2022
01:36:42pm
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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This is the end of the stamps of the Weimar Republic.

From here on a new era will start : The Third Reich...........

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02 Dec 2022
09:45:03am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Hitler adored Fredric the Great so the first serie was about Fredric the Great

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02 Dec 2022
09:46:20am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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The Hindenburg serie but now with watermark 2

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02 Dec 2022
09:47:42am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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The serie B is not shown here ( It will come later )

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02 Dec 2022
09:49:33am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Block 2 is a little too big to scan it on my scanner. (Sorry)

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02 Dec 2022
09:51:15am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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The Hindenburg serie but now with watermark 4 (swastika)

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02 Dec 2022
09:53:05am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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LUFTPOST serie from 1934

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02 Dec 2022
09:53:42am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
09:54:21am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
09:55:01am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
09:55:50am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
09:56:59am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
10:04:17am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Eintrittskarte EISHOCKEY / Ticket icehockey TCH - FRA 2-0


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Eintrittskarte EISHOCKEY / Ticket CAN - USA 1-0


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Eintrittskarte EISHOCKEY / Ticket GBR - CAN 2-1


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Team Canada (Port Arthur Bear Cats)


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Artificial Ice Stadium Garmisch Partenkirchen

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03 Dec 2022
06:01:34am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

The promised B variant of Michel numbers 500 - 505.
MNH and canceled

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03 Dec 2022
08:05:11am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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03 Dec 2022
08:06:03am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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03 Dec 2022
08:08:19am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

The olympic blocks (NORMAL PAPER)

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The olympic blocks (THICK PAPER)

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03 Dec 2022
08:09:01am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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03 Dec 2022
08:12:14am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

BLOCKS 7 and 8 MNH

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BLOCKS 7 and 8 Canceled

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BLOCK 4 and BLOCK 9 on enveloppe

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03 Dec 2022
08:17:16am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

BLOCK 9 and 11 MNH

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BLOCK 9 and 11 Canceled

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03 Dec 2022
08:18:51am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

BLOCK 10 MNH

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BLOCK 10 Canceled

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03 Dec 2022
08:19:30am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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03 Dec 2022
08:20:24am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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05 Dec 2022
05:08:46am
re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Because I notice that loading this thread takes longer and my internet browser indicates that a lot of memory is used (Cache) I decided to make a part 2 of this thread.

Sorry for the inconvenience

So let us continue with the thread : https://stamporama.com/discboard/disc_ma ...

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23 Nov 2022
08:53:57am

It has been awhile but here another thread about the german empire.

Hope you like it.

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23 Nov 2022
08:55:27am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

German Empire (German: Deutsches Reich)
was the official name of Germany from 1871 to 1945. The term can also be used for the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806) and the unitary state that tried to bring about the revolution within the German Confederation in the years 1848 and 1849.

Introduction
Since Charlemagne was crowned 'Roman emperor' in 800, his successors continued to use that title. This they emphasized in later centuries by calling their territories, originally the Frankish Empire, the 'Holy Roman Empire'. The designation "Roman Empire" referred to the earlier Roman Empire, which the Frankish rulers believed they had continued, and the additional designation "Holy" referred to its Christian character. Furthermore, there was the pretension that the emperor would be the equal secular monarch of all Christendom next to the pope as the prelate of the church. France and Great Britain gradually took less and less notice of this view, as a result of which the Empire increasingly became a 'German' Empire, to which the Netherlands, Bohemia, Northern Italy and parts of Burgundy also belonged for a long time. Since the 15th century, therefore, the name of the empire was often supplemented with the delimiting addition "of the German Nation": Heiliges Römisches Reich deutscher Nation. In 1806, under pressure from Napoleon Bonaparte, the then and last emperor Francis II proceeded to dissolve the empire.

In April 1848, the Frankfurt Parliament, the German national assembly, was elected. His task was to draft a new constitution. The existing German Confederation was revolutionary reformed into the German Reich, a unitary state with a provisional head of state and a Reich government. After the Prussian coup d'état, the National Assembly came to an end in May/June 1849; the Reich government under Reichsverweser Erzherzog Johann continued until December 20, 1849.

The economic cohesion between the various German states increased in the course of the 19th century. In 1867, under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian prime minister, they founded a North German Confederation. The parliament of this federal state was called Reichstag. During the war against France in 1870/71, the southern German states also joined the league, which was now called Deutsches Reich (see German Empire). The Prussian king became Deutscher Kaiser. Austria remained outside the new empire.

The state, founded in 1867, became a republic in 1918/1919 through a new constitution. For the period from 1919-1933 one speaks of the Weimar Republic, for the period from 1933 of National Socialist Germany ('Nazi Germany') or also “Drittes Reich”. In constitutional law, however, the name for Germany changed in 1943 to Greater German Reich.

In 1945, the empire became incapacitated because the four victors of the Second World War took over government power. Delegates of the German states occupied by the US, UK and France founded the Bundesrepublik Deutschland in 1949 with the Grundgesetz. According to German jurisprudence and the Constitutional Court, the Federal Republic is identical with the German state established in 1867, no successor state. Laws and international treaties from the time of 1867-1949 are still valid (pre-constitutional law, Art. 123 Grundgesetz).

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23 Nov 2022
08:57:10am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

The German Empire 1871-1918

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Establishment
Prussia and its allies fought in the German War of 1866 against Austria and the other states of southern Germany. After the victory, Prussia established a federal state, the North German Confederation, with a large number of northern and central German states. Despite the name, this was a federal state with a constitutional monarchy. Prussia was the dominant power within the federation, with the Prussian king as the Bundespräsidium, effectively the head of state.

During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871, the remaining southern German states joined the North German Confederation. Baden, Bavaria, Württemberg and Hessen-Darmstadt signed treaties with the North German Confederation, the so-called “Novemberverträge”. Despite the rhetoric in the treaties, which spoke of the establishment (= Gründung) of a new German Confederation, it was about joining an existing federal state.

On this occasion, the federal state received a new constitution twice. The constitution of January 1, 1870 already mentioned the accession of Baden and Hesse and changed the name of the federal state to German Reich. The Federal Presidency (= Bundespräsidium) or the Prussian king was given another title: “Deutscher Kaiser”. These new terms were approved by the Reichstag and Bundesrat, the legislative bodies of the North German Confederation, on 8/9 December 1870.

On January 18, 1871, most of the German monarchs gathered in Versailles, the German headquarters in France. They hailed King Wilhelm I of Prussia as emperor, who had recently refused to accept that title. However, he had already had this title since January 1 due to the new constitution. Erroneously, the Emperor Proclamation of Versailles ( = Kaiserproklamation von Versailles) was later celebrated as the Founding Date ( = Reichsgründungstag) of the German Reich.

The constitution was already outdated, because Württemberg had ratified the accession treaty just in December. Bavaria followed, with retroactive effect, on January 29. Also, some terms in the constitution had not yet been adapted to the new name of the federal state. The newly elected Reichstag (March 1871) therefore soon accepted a new constitution, which was adopted on April 16 and came into force on May 4. Since then, for example, the Federal Chancellor was really the Reich Chancellor. Chancellor remained Otto von Bismarck; despite the new title, a reappointment was not necessary because the federal state was the same.

From May 1871 Alsace-Lorraine also belonged to the German Reich as a kind of protectorate or “Reichsland”. From 1884, Germany also had several colonies in Africa and Asia.

The constitution of 1867 described a political system that was hardly changed despite the changes in 1870/1871. The new state was described quite summarily because the founders were in a hurry. The actual construction of the new state followed in the period 1867-1878, thanks to Bismarck's cooperation with the national-liberal and liberal-conservative dominated Reichstag. The German Empire developed prosperously in the economic, scientific/technical and military fields and even took over the leadership from Great Britain, but politically Germany was still dominated by the aristocratic/conservative elite. Due to the mutual competition of the European superpowers, a major confrontation became more and more inevitable and in 1914 the First World War broke out. In Germany, the ruling aristocracy became increasingly unpopular during the war and in October 1918, more than two weeks before the end of the monarchical system, the emperor and conservatives agreed to a constitutional amendment that required the Reichstag to have the confidence of the Reichstag. Thus, the parliamentarianism that had become a practice since 1917/1918 was also given legal status.

End
On November 9, 1918, Chancellor Max von Baden was afraid that an angry mob in Berlin was about to take over power. He had therefore asked the unpopular Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate. But a clear answer from the Emperor, who was staying at the German headquarters in Belgium, was not forthcoming, and eventually von Baden announced the abdication of the Emperor and Crown Prince on his own initiative. Von Baden handed over his office to the leader of the right wing of the Social Democrats, Friedrich Ebert, because his faction was the largest in the Reichstag. However, such a transfer was not valid under the old constitution. Ebert, a moderate socialist, initially wanted to further transform the political system into a full-fledged parliamentary monarchy and place a capable replacement for the deposed emperor on the throne. But on that same day, leading socialist Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the republic to precede the communists who wanted to do the same.
Ebert set up a transitional body, the “Rat der Volksbeauftragten”. This body of left and right social democrats controlled the government and prevented the meeting of the Reichstag and Bundesrat. In January 1919, De Rat allowed the German people to elect a new national assembly that met in the city of Weimar.


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23 Nov 2022
08:58:20am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

The German Empire between 1919 and 1937 (Weimar republic)

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After the fall of the monarchy, a democratic republic was proclaimed by social democrats, later informally called the Weimar Republic after the city where the constitution was promulgated. When the final peace treaty with the Allies was signed, the Peace of Versailles, the German Empire had to give up a large part of its territory, mainly to Poland and France. And Germany's military and economic power was also severely curtailed in the peace treaty by the dismantling of most of the army and huge reparations to the victors. From the outset, the new republic had to contend with the instability and chaos of post-war Germany, exacerbated by the harsh provisions of the peace treaty. During this period, prices for food and other necessities rose rapidly, pushing a large part of the population into poverty. This created a lot of unrest and dissatisfaction among the German people, which led to radicalization on the right and left, in which the two camps literally fought each other in the street with left- and right-wing radical thugs. In the later 1920s, the country became more stable and the economy also improved, so that unemployment fell and people voted for the more moderate middle parties again. The country seemed to have entered calmer waters. But this came to an abrupt end with the stock market crash of 1929, which collapsed the global economy and caused mass unemployment. Chaos returned to the streets and desperately sought a 'strong man' who would clean up the political and economic mess and restore order and discipline. In the early 1930s, Adolf Hitler became increasingly popular among voters and eventually his NSDAP came to power. Almost immediately after taking office in January 1933, Hitler finally killed the already shaky democracy of the Weimar Republic (see Gleichschaltung) and turned Germany into a totalitarian dictatorship. Historiography usually ends the period of the Weimar Republic with this.


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23 Nov 2022
08:59:27am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Nazi Germany (1933-1945)

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Even during the National Socialist regime, the name of the German Reich remained. The propaganda term Third Reich was only used for a short time.

Hitler made Germany more of a unitary state by systematically weakening the powers of the individual states. The Imperial Council (Reichsrat), the organ of the federated states, was abolished. In August 1934, after the death of Reich President Hindenburg, Hitler united the office of Reich President with that of Reich Chancellor and since then called himself Führer und Reichskanzler. The Reichstag consisted only of members of the National Socialist party and a few non-party guests. Opponents of the regime and certain minorities such as Jews were oppressed and murdered.

Before 1940, Austria with the Anschluss and the Czech Republic were annexed to the German Reich with the Munich Agreement without the need for war. But with his continued aggressive foreign policy, Hitler inevitably headed for war, which began with the attack on Poland in 1939 (see also the article on World War II). Germany overran a large part of Europe in this, but when Hitler wanted to destroy the Soviet Union in 1941 in order to obtain lebensraum for Germany, he set his sights too high. Initially, in the first months of the attack, Germany seemed to bring the Soviet Union to its knees, but by December a stalemate had developed. However, Hitler refused to accept peace proposals from the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin. Over the next few years, Hitler's allied opponents, mainly the British, Americans and Soviets, slowly pushed the German armies back into Germany. In the meantime, in 1943, Hitler had officially rejoined the German Reich not only the areas ceded since 1919, but also large areas that originally lay outside it, such as parts of the dissolved Poland and Czechoslovakia in the east and Luxembourg in the west.

This whole was now referred to as the Greater German Reich. However, this never became official. Greater German referred to the 19th century political current the Greater German direction that sought a unification of all German-speaking areas of Europe. With the Anschluss (1938) of Austria, Hitler had already largely realized this ideal. The Greater German Reich only lasted for a short time, namely until 1945, when a catastrophic defeat finally followed in which the entire (Greater) German Reich was occupied by the Allies. On May 8, 1945, the German armed forces capitulated, and on May 23, the last German Reich government was arrested. The western part of Germany was occupied by the Americans, French and British, the eastern part by the Soviet Union.

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23 Nov 2022
09:14:43am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Watermarks German Empire / Weimar republic / Third Reich :

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Difference between "Kleines Burstschild" and "Grosser Burstschild"

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23 Nov 2022
09:20:12am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Michelnumber 1-11 (Kleine Brustschild)

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Michelnumber 12-13

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Michelnumber 14-15

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23 Nov 2022
09:37:24am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Michel 16-28 (Grosser Burstschield)

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16, 17a and 18

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19, 20 and 21a

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22, 23a and 24

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25, 26 and 27a

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28


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23 Nov 2022
09:40:49am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 29 and 30



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Michel 31-36

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24 Nov 2022
02:35:46pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 37b

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Michel 37e

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Michel 38

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24 Nov 2022
02:39:13pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 39-44

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Michel 45-50

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Michel 52

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24 Nov 2022
02:44:01pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 53-66 Inschrift REICHSPOST


I have a lot of trouble with my scanner and my new computer......

In the next days I will try to scan the images first and then post them here.

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25 Nov 2022
09:30:10am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 68 - 82A (WITHOUT WATERMARK)


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Michel 83 - 97A I (Friedensdruck) (WITH WATERMARK)


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Michel 84 - 93 II (Kriegsdruck) (WITH WATERMARK)


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Michel 94 - 97B II (Kriegsdruck) (WITH WATERMARK)


I = Friedensdruck
Stamps made with peace materials, clear print on glossy artinated paper, central piece mostly glossy, watermark clearly visible, matt gum, finely fractured and white

II = Kriegsdruck
Stamps made with war material, unclear print on dull raw paper, central piece mostly dull, watermark poorly visible, gum shiny and smooth

Catalog difference between A and B :

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So count the perforation holes on the top op the stamps.

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25 Nov 2022
10:18:32am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Flugpost am Rhein und Main


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Michel I, II and III and IV and VI (do not have number V)


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Flugpostkarte



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Certificate of IV (Gelber Hund)

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26 Nov 2022
08:03:35am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel 98-100
Michel 101a
Michel 102-104

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26 Nov 2022
08:05:15am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

From here on the stamps are from the Weimar Republic

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Michel 105-106
Michel 107-110
Michel 111a- 112a

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26 Nov 2022
08:18:19am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Well it is easier for me to scan the whole album pages.
The down side is that you can only see the unused stamps.

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26 Nov 2022
08:29:23am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

And for the real sleuths among us. Gepr means Certified

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26 Nov 2022
08:30:37am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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26 Nov 2022
08:38:39am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Other note :
* means Unused
** means MNH
0 means stamped

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26 Nov 2022
08:46:55am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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26 Nov 2022
08:58:32am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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176a Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
12:29:49pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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26 Nov 2022
12:41:20pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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243a Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
12:50:00pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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256c Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
01:01:23pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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261a Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
01:18:58pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Emergency spending of hyperinflation
August 24 to November 30, 1923


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290 = 100 tausend auf 400 mark (hellgrun)


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300 = 400 tausend auf 40 Pfg (Ockerbraun)

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26 Nov 2022
01:35:15pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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312Ab 2 Millionen auf 5000 Mark Gepruft

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26 Nov 2022
01:50:00pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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329A = 20 Millarden Mark


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337 = 10 Millarden auf 100 Millionen Mark

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28 Nov 2022
07:15:36am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Flugpost ausgaben :

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265 = 25 Mark holztaube

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28 Nov 2022
07:17:06am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:17:50am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:18:35am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:19:25am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:20:11am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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28 Nov 2022
07:23:01am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Block 1 ( Iposta 1930 )

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28 Nov 2022
07:23:55am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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01 Dec 2022
01:14:31pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

To all those here on the forum who have sent me compliments via private messages.
Thank you for the responses and complements.

And now more.......

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01 Dec 2022
01:17:34pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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All with watermark : WZ 2

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01 Dec 2022
01:18:44pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

FLUGPOST stamps

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01 Dec 2022
01:22:32pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

And of course the Zeppelin stamps. All are genuine and experticed, except the last row.

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01 Dec 2022
01:28:03pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

And now the official stamps from that era :

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Michel number 22 gepruft


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Michel number 32 gepruft

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01 Dec 2022
01:29:15pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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01 Dec 2022
01:31:32pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel number 56


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Michel number 73

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01 Dec 2022
01:33:34pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Michel number 78


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Michel number 90

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01 Dec 2022
01:36:42pm

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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This is the end of the stamps of the Weimar Republic.

From here on a new era will start : The Third Reich...........

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02 Dec 2022
09:45:03am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Hitler adored Fredric the Great so the first serie was about Fredric the Great

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02 Dec 2022
09:46:20am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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The Hindenburg serie but now with watermark 2

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02 Dec 2022
09:47:42am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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The serie B is not shown here ( It will come later )

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02 Dec 2022
09:49:33am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Block 2 is a little too big to scan it on my scanner. (Sorry)

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02 Dec 2022
09:51:15am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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The Hindenburg serie but now with watermark 4 (swastika)

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02 Dec 2022
09:53:05am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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LUFTPOST serie from 1934

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02 Dec 2022
09:53:42am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
09:54:21am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
09:55:01am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
09:55:50am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
09:56:59am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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02 Dec 2022
10:04:17am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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Eintrittskarte EISHOCKEY / Ticket icehockey TCH - FRA 2-0


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Eintrittskarte EISHOCKEY / Ticket CAN - USA 1-0


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Eintrittskarte EISHOCKEY / Ticket GBR - CAN 2-1


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Team Canada (Port Arthur Bear Cats)


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Artificial Ice Stadium Garmisch Partenkirchen

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03 Dec 2022
06:01:34am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

The promised B variant of Michel numbers 500 - 505.
MNH and canceled

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03 Dec 2022
08:05:11am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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03 Dec 2022
08:06:03am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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03 Dec 2022
08:08:19am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

The olympic blocks (NORMAL PAPER)

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The olympic blocks (THICK PAPER)

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03 Dec 2022
08:09:01am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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03 Dec 2022
08:12:14am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

BLOCKS 7 and 8 MNH

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BLOCKS 7 and 8 Canceled

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BLOCK 4 and BLOCK 9 on enveloppe

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HockeyNut

03 Dec 2022
08:17:16am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

BLOCK 9 and 11 MNH

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BLOCK 9 and 11 Canceled

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HockeyNut

03 Dec 2022
08:18:51am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

BLOCK 10 MNH

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BLOCK 10 Canceled

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HockeyNut

03 Dec 2022
08:19:30am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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HockeyNut

03 Dec 2022
08:20:24am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

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HockeyNut

05 Dec 2022
05:08:46am

re: Deutsches Reich / German Empire

Because I notice that loading this thread takes longer and my internet browser indicates that a lot of memory is used (Cache) I decided to make a part 2 of this thread.

Sorry for the inconvenience

So let us continue with the thread : https://stamporama.com/discboard/disc_ma ...

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