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Europe/Germany : Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
08:49:19am
The Weimar Replublic

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The Weimar Republic was Germany’s government from 1919 to 1933, the period after World War I until the rise of Nazi Germany. It was named after the town of Weimar where Germany’s new government was formed by a national assembly after Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated. From its uncertain beginnings to a brief season of success and then a devastating depression, the Weimar Republic experienced enough chaos to position Germany for the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party.

Germany After World War I
Germany didn’t fare well after World War I, as it was thrown into troubling economic and social disorder. After a series of mutinies by German sailors and soldiers, Kaiser Wilhelm II lost the support of his military and the German people, and he was forced to abdicate on November 9, 1918.
(He fled to the dutch town Doorn where he died in 1941)
The following day, a provisional government was announced made up of members of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USDP), shifting power from the military.
In December 1918, elections were held for a National Assembly tasked with creating a new parliamentary constitution. On February 6, 1919, the National Assembly met in the town of Weimar and formed the Weimar Coalition. They also elected SDP leader Friedrich Ebert as President of the Weimar Republic.

On June 28, the Treaty of Versailles was signed, which ordered Germany to reduce its military, take responsibility for the World War I, relinquish some of its territory and pay exorbitant reparations to the Allies. It also prevented Germany from joining the League of Nations at that time.

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Coat Of Arms Of Germany 1919-1928

Weimar Constitution
On August 11, 1919, the Weimar Constitution was signed into law by President Ebert. The law faced venomous opposition from the military and the radical left. The Constitution contained 181 articles and covered everything from the structure of the German state (Reich) and the rights of the German people to religious freedom and how laws should be enacted.
The Weimar Constitution included these highlights:
• The German Reich is a Republic.
• The government is made of a president, a chancellor and a parliament (Reichstag).
• Representatives of the people must be elected equally every four years by all men and women over age 20.
• The term of the President is seven years.
• All orders of the President must be endorsed by the Chancellor or a Reich Minister.
• Article 48 allows the President to suspend civil rights and operate independently in an emergency.
• Two legislative bodies (the Reichstag and the Reichsrat) were formed to represent the German people.
• All Germans are equal and have the same civil rights and responsibilities.
• All Germans have the right to freedom of expression.
• All Germans have the right to peaceful assembly.
• All Germans have the right to freedom of religion; there is no state church.
• State-run, public education is free and mandatory for children.
• All Germans have the right of private property.
• All Germans have the right to equal opportunity and earnings in the workplace.

Hyperinflation and the Fallout
Despite its new constitution, the Weimar Republic faced one of Germany’s greatest economic challenges: hyperinflation. Thanks to the Treaty of Versailles, Germany’s ability to produce revenue-generating coal and iron are decreased. As war debts and reparations drained its coffers, the German government was unable to pay its debts.
Some of the former World War I Allies didn’t buy Germany’s claim that it couldn’t afford to pay. In a blatant League of Nations breach, French and Belgian troops occupied Germany’s main industrial area, the Ruhr, determined to get their reparation payments.
The Weimar government ordered German workers to passively resist the occupation and go on strike, shutting down the coal mines and iron factories. As a result, Germany’s economy quickly tanked.
In response, the Weimar government simply printed more money. The effort backfired, however, and further devalued the German Mark and inflation increased at an astounding level. The cost of living rose rapidly and many people lost all they had.
According to Paper Money, written by George J. W. Goodman under the pseudonym Adam Smith, "the law-abiding country crumbled into petty thievery." An underground bartering economy was established to help people meet their basic needs.

Dawes Plan
Germany elected Gustav Stresemann as their new chancellor in 1923. He ordered Ruhr workers back to the factories and replaced the Mark with a new currency, the American-backed Rentenmark.
In late 1923, the League of Nations asked U.S. banker and Director of the Budget, Charles Dawes, to help tackle Germany’s reparations and hyperinflation issues. He submitted the "Dawes Plan" which outlined a plan for Germany to pay more reasonable reparations on a sliding scale. Dawes was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
The Dawes Plan and Stresemann’s leadership helped stabilize the Weimar Republic and energize its economy. In addition, Germany repaired relations with France and Belgium and was finally allowed into the League of Nations, which opened the door for international trade. In general, life improved in the Weimar Republic.

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Coat Of Arms Of Germany 1928-1933

Great Depression
Much of the Weimar Republic’s recovery was due to a steady flow of American dollars into its economy. But unbeknownst to Germany, America had positioned itself for an economic disaster of its own as it struggled with increased unemployment, low wages, declining stock values and massive, unliquidated bank loans.
On October 29, 1929, the U.S. stock market crashed, sending America into a devastating economic meltdown and ushering in the Great Depression.
The stock market crash had a global ripple effect. It was especially devastating for the newly recovered Weimar Republic. As the flow of American money dried up, Germany could no longer meet their financial responsibilities. Businesses failed, unemployment plummeted again, and Germany faced another devastating economic crisis.

Article 48
During hyperinflation, the German middle class bore the brunt of the economic chaos. When another financial crisis hit, they grew weary and distrustful of their government leaders. Searching for new leadership and fearing a Communist takeover, many people turned to extremist parties such as the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler, despite his unpopular and failed attempt to start a national revolution in 1923.
In 1932, the Nazi Party became the largest political party in Parliament. After a brief struggle for power, Hitler was named Chancellor in January 1933. Within weeks, he invoked Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution to quash many civil rights and suppress members of the Communist party.
In March 1933, Hitler introduced the Enabling Act to allow him to pass laws without the approval of Germany’s Parliament or President. To make sure the Enabling Act was passed, Hitler forcibly prevented Communist Parliament members from voting. Once it became law, Hitler was free to legislate as he saw fit and establish his dictatorship without any checks and balances.

Source and Author : https://www.history.com


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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
08:55:39am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
08:57:36am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
08:58:51am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
08:59:45am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
09:01:14am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
09:02:45am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Letter Postage Rates for 1923
For Domestic / Foreign Letters (Up to 20 Grams)

January 15th 1923 -> 20 Marks / 150 Marks
March 1st 1923 -> 40 Marks / 300 Marks
July 1st 1923 -> 120 Marks / 800 Marks
August 1st 1923 -> 400 Marks / 3,000 Marks
August 24th 1923 -> 8,000 Marks / 60,000 Marks
September 1st 1923 -> 30,000 Marks / 200,000 Marks
September 20th 1923 -> 100,000 Marks / 750,000 Marks
October 1st 1923 -> 800,000 Marks / 6,000,000 Marks
October 10th 1923 -> 2,000,000 Marks / 15,000,000 Marks
October 20th 1923 -> 4,000,000 Marks / 30,000,000 Marks
November 1st 1923 -> 40,000,000 Marks / 200,000,000 Marks
November 5th 1923 -> 500,000,000 Marks / 4,000,000,000 Marks
November 12th 1923 -> 5,000,000,000 Marks / 40,000,000,000 Marks
November 20th 1923 -> 10,000,000,000 Marks / 80,000,000,000 Marks
November 26th 1923 -> 40,000,000,000 Marks / 320,000,000,000 Marks
December 12th 1923 -> 50,000,000,000 Marks / 300,000,000,000 Marks

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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
09:05:55am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Examples of falling prices :

On June 9, 1923 in Berlin it cost:
1 egg - 800 Papiermarks
1 liter of milk - 1440 Papiermarks
1 kilo of potatoes - 5000 Papiermarks
1 tram ride - 600 Papiermarks
1 US dollar corresponded to 100,000 Papiermarks.

On December 2, 1923 in Berlin it cost:
1 egg - 320 billion Papiermarks (= 320 millarden in europe)
1 liter of milk - 360 billion Papiermarks ( = 360 millarden in europe)
1 kilo of potatoes - 90 billion Papiermarks (= 90 millarden in europe)
1 tram ride - 50 billion Papiermarks (= 50 millarden in europe)
1 US dollar corresponded to 4.21 trillion Papiermarks. (= 4,21 bilionen in europe)
1 US Dollar = 4.210.000.000.000.000 Papiermarks


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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
09:06:30am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Currencies in Germany
1873 - 1914 : Goldmark (was so-called because it adhered to the gold standard)
1914 - 1923 : Papiermark (They switched from gold to paper because it was cheaper and could be made in larger quantities.)
1923 - 1924 : Rentenmark ( It was introduced as a temporary currency to smooth the transition from the Papiermark to the Reichsmark )
1924 - 1948 : Reichsmark (The name comes from Deutsches Reich)
1948 - 2002 : Deutsche Mark

On November 30th 1923 it costs 1.000.000.000.000.000 (1 trillion) Papiermark to buy a single Goldmark !!!!!!
In december 1923 it costs 1.000.000.000.000 (1 billion) Papiermark to buy a single Rentenmark.


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HockeyNut
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29 Jul 2020
09:10:43am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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Kids playing with a selfmade kite build from inflation money

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Woman is lighting the stove with inflation money

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HockeyNut
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30 Jul 2020
05:35:53am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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HockeyNut
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30 Jul 2020
05:36:37am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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gerom
30 Jul 2020
09:16:37am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Hello HockeyNut
Thank you for posting your beautiful collection from the Weimar Republic.
Please help me to identify the overprint color of the Mi # 310A stamp (2 million on 300 Mark). In the catalog the overprint is blackish-green, but all my stamps have the black overprint.
Thank you
George
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HockeyNut
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30 Jul 2020
10:22:55am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Gerom,

All my 310A stamp-overprints appears to be BLACK and not BLACKISH GREEN like it says in the catalog.

All my 304A stamp-overprints appears to be BLACKISH GREEN just like the catalog mentioned.

I really can not give you an answer about that!

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gerom
30 Jul 2020
12:17:03pm
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Thank you very, very,very much HockeyNut.
I waited a week on "stampcommunity.org" for an answer to this simple question.
I think it is a simple catalog mistake and I will try to contact the editors of the catalog. I have Michel specialized ed.2011 and maybe in recent catalogs the mistake was corrected. I doubt considering the small catalog value of the stamp.
The stamp of right is a "2" varietie?

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HockeyNut
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30 Jul 2020
02:03:30pm
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Quote:

"The stamp of right is a "2" varietie?"



Yep,
you are right!

But to show all the variations of the stamps I have is another thing........
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HockeyNut
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30 Jul 2020
02:06:17pm
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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Different issues of DEUTSCHE NOTFILE

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FREIMARKEN BERUHMTE DEUTSCHEN

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HockeyNut
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30 Jul 2020
02:10:20pm
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

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REICHSPRÄSIDENTEN

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DIE BERÜHMTE FLUGPOSTMARKEN
DIE ZEPPELINS

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HockeyNut
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30 Jul 2020
02:24:03pm
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Special for GEROM :
ONE OF THE MANY PAGES WITH VARIATIONS :

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gerom
31 Jul 2020
12:07:27am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Thanks HockeyNut.
I have no varieties with "postal horn" type stamp.

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gerom
03 Aug 2020
05:36:44am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Hi HockeyNut
I tried to identify the varieties of horn stamps.
206 F is 206WF? (ohne Unterdruck)
207II is 207 P II? (missing lines in the triangles on one side? -Please confirm if I translated correctly)
208 II is ??
209 Y is 209 Py? (Vierpass walzendruck)
I have Michel special ed.2011.
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HockeyNut
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03 Aug 2020
06:19:18am
re: Weimar Republiek / Weimar Republic

Gerom,

I sorted out those stamps about 20 year ago.
I do not know if those variations are still the same.
I see that your catalog mentions P(latte) and W(alze) variations, but can hardly see these differences when you do not have the stamp with the upper egde of the sheet.

But thanks any way.

I have bought the new color guide from Michel. Wow ! The prices are rising like crazy.
Had to pay 89,00 euro's. That was a bummer At Wits End Crying

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