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Europe/Germany : interesting facts and explanations

 

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HockeyNut
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09 Dec 2019
07:56:51am
DIE DEUTSCHE DIENSTPOST

The Dienstpost was run by German postal officials and dealt with all post which did not come under the military Field Post system in the occupied areas. Normally the Dienstpost was for German civilians who worked in German occupied countries, although soldiers could use it as well. Sometimes the Dienstpost office would be in the same building as the FELDPOST, and in some cases even on the same postal counter.

The reason for "Dienstpost" in World War Two was for a secure way to get post to Germany (or to another country under German control ), unlike the local postal service which ran the risk of being intercepted and opened by partisan bands. Infact in many areas, local people in occupied countries were forbidden to use the Dienstpost system, it being reserved for German Nationals, or foreigners in German service. Dienstpost could use all German stamps, and can only be identified by the Dienstpost cancellation.

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HockeyNut
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09 Dec 2019
08:10:36am
re: interesting facts and explanations

FIELD COMMANDANT OF PLESKAU
The Commandant of Pleskau (Northern Front), unable to get a supply of stamps for the town, issued both German and Soviet stamps with the overprint "PLESKAU". When the Reichspost head office in Berlin found out that German stamps had been illegally overprinted, the issue was withdrawn, but a number had already gone through the post.

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The Field Commandant ordered the printing of local stamps for Pleskau, they went on sale in October 1941, and were again issued in March 1942 with the colours changed. The money made on the sale of the stamps went to the local Pleskau Kindergarten.

All Pleskau stamps became invalid when German "OSTLAND" stamps were issued in May 1942.
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HockeyNut
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09 Dec 2019
04:58:44pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

WARSAW UPRISING
On 1 August 1944, the Polish Home Army (the Armia Krajowa, or AK) launched a major operation in an attempt to liberate Warsaw from Nazi German control. This operation would come to be known as the Warsaw Uprising.

Initially, the AK was able to gain control over large portions of the city. However, the Russians chose to withhold any assistance, and over the next two months, the Germans eventually gained the upper hand. On 2 October 1944, the final AK elements surrendered, returning full control of the city back over to the Germans.

During the 2 months in which the Poles controlled portions of the city, there were several provisional postage stamps designed and/or issued for use. Here are a few.

The first overprint issue consisted of overprints of the Generalgouvernement Hitler Head issues. The overprint reads "Poczta Polowa 1-VIII-1944 Warszawa", or "Fieldpost 1 August 1944 Warsaw". These were never issued for use.

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P.S. The stamps are from my collection

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ikeyPikey
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09 Dec 2019
08:07:31pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

'
Hard to believe that, in the midst of a 60-day street-by-street battle, some dude at the local post office decided that what they really needed was their own postage to - what - stiffen their resolve?

Next thing, someone will post the Viet Cong's Danang local overprints of 1968.

Barricade building, food smuggling, guard duty ... so many things to do in a desperate battle, and some postal clerk decided that what they really need is their own postage?

Cheers,

/s/ ikeyPikey


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"I collect stamps today precisely the way I collected stamps when I was ten years old."
nlroberts1961

12,8 cm Kanone 43 L/55 in blueprints only

09 Dec 2019
11:22:52pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

It sounds peculiar to modern times but taking over the post office was seen as a sign of winning or gaining control, later it was the radio station. In 1916 the IRA occupied the Dublin GPO. You have to rethink to a time without TV or radio. Only way to get a message around was the post or the press. Think of it as cheap propaganda and/or PRIDE if nothing else. I think if you want to understand history it is not enough to read the last book on the subject. You need to read the papers, letters and even the books that were written AT THE TIME however inaccurate they may be deemed by modern study in order to get a real sense of what was going on.

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"Euros think a 100 miles is a long way, Americans think a 100 yrs is a long time..."
gerom

10 Dec 2019
01:59:08am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Hi HockeyNut
Beautiful stamps and valuable at the same time.
I found them in cat.Michel:
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gerom

10 Dec 2019
02:55:17am
re: interesting facts and explanations

The "Pleskau" stamps are also mentioned in the Michel catalog.
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Are they expertised?
Thank you for posted them.

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Jansimon
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collector, seller, MT member

10 Dec 2019
03:39:38am

Approvals
re: interesting facts and explanations

I suppose all the stamps need expertizing as forgeries are available in abundance, especially on sites like ebay. I see all kinds of supposedly unlisted varieties that are just recent creations / fantasies or whatever to call them, used to lure naive collectors with big wallets...

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www.etsy.com/nl/shop/itsallmadeofpaper/
HockeyNut
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10 Dec 2019
06:07:57am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Well fellow collectors,
Most of the more expensive stamps are provided with an inspection or a photo certificate.

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HockeyNut
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10 Dec 2019
06:32:13am
re: interesting facts and explanations

******************************
UPDATED UPDATED UPDATED
******************************

BRAC / HVAR / KORCULO
When Yugoslavia broke up in 1941, the islands on the Dalmatian coast Croatia progressed Mussolini's Italy. However, when the fascist regime in Italy collapsed and Italian troops in 1943 left the Western Balkans, islands near Split dominated the Yugoslav partisans.
Area, abandoned by the Italian army, however, has conquered its ally - the fascist Germany.
On the series also came Islands - stamp area (CA) of Brac, Hvar and Korcula.
German 118. Division mountain shooters under the command of General Joseph Kubler moved to the peninsula of Peljesac, with headquarters in Janjine.
From there came the order to occupy the islands.
23 December 1943 738. Regiment conquered mountain shooters island of Korcula, January 12, 1944 was planted on the island of Brac, and 19 to 21 January 1944 conquered the island of Hvar. In the hands of the German islands they remained until September, 1944.
It is historically confirmed (Dr. Rommerskirchen) that German soldiers gave the order to manufacture prítla?ových stamps for the island of Brac in the Adriatic Sea in Dubrovnik printer and signs actually May 16, 1944 at the post office Nerižiš?e used.
The issue for the other two islands on the details of the missing.
Many German soldiers on the islands in June 1944 fell a substantial part of the marks of the island of Brac has been destroyed.
Croatian natural resources mark, occupation, condemn, while Italian sources (the islands for many years belonged to Italy as Brazza and Lesina Curzola) marks recorded and experts confirmed their authenticity.
Some data from the prestigious Italian CEI catalog (Catalog Enciclopedic Italiano) in 2005. Since then, prices have risen ...

Story from https://www.postoveznamky.sk/postage-stamp-territories-the-german-occupation-of-the-islands-of-brac-hvar-and-korcula

BRAC

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Quantities printed : 2+2 (400), 4+4 (400), 8+8 (500), 16+16 (400), 32+32 (500), 50+50 (500)

I never have seen the following stamps so i DO NOT own them.
The pictures are from the site mentioned above.


HVAR

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June 6, 1944 issued 2 series, with only 624 stamps.

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With imprint Red Cross (very very rare)


KORCULA

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December 24, 1943 issued 400 marks = 100 complete series of 4 stamps


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HockeyNut
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10 Dec 2019
07:59:54am
re: interesting facts and explanations

LJADY (Near LENINGRAD)
December 1941 the district of Ljady ( Leningrad Front), issued 1Rfg "OSTLAND" stamps with an overprint, for use in a an area where normal postal service was not possible due to partisans.

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LUGA (Near LENINGRAD)
Soviet stamps overprinted with a new value for use in LUGA are also known to exist.
Serie was withdrawn from the counter.
(Leningrad Front 1941).

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HockeyNut
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11 Dec 2019
12:25:47pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

FRANZENBAD

Due to a lack of Czechoslovakian postage, German stamps (MiNr 886, 888-893) were overprinted by the U.S. Army.
They were to be issued on 26 May 1945, but on that day, the Army called the post offices and directed that they were to be issued only to U.S. Army personnel, not to civilians.
This was honored at all post offices except Bad Wildstein, where the lack of telephone service delayed receipt of the directive.
Therefore, valid civilian cancels exist from Bad Wildstein on 26 & 27 May 1945.

The overprint is “value / U. S. ARMY / v C.S.R. / 18.IV.1945?.
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If have these stamps even used!!!!!!!!!!!!
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And certified........
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HockeyNut
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11 Dec 2019
12:28:42pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

DENMARK

Danish Legion Feltpost Stamps: 1944 Famous Landmarks Views.
Complete perforated set of three:
Green +25 øre Roskilde Domkirke (cathedral),
Blue +50 øre Koldingshus (Kolding Castle),
Red +1 mk Kronborg castle (which also served as a lighthouse).
These fundraising stamps were issued in Denmark by Nazi German authorities and were intended to act like semi-postal stamps
(to benefit Danish Legion soldiers fighting on behalf of the Germans on the Eastern Front) on free military mail;
thus there was no base denomination, only the supplementary value.
Only known issued in a booklet (extremely rare) with all the stamps perforated on all four sides.
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Even used.........
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jmh67

12 Dec 2019
01:16:30am
re: interesting facts and explanations

"LUGA (Near LENINGRAD)
Soviet stamps overprinted with a new value for use in LUGA are also known to exist.
Serie was withdrawn from the counter.
(Leningrad Front 1941)."



It appears remarkably inefficient - and does not make sense to me at all - that whoever authorised these stamps had various values of stamps overprinted with 20 kopecks, while at the same time 20 kopeck stamps were overprinted with 60 kopecks. We'll never find out why, I suppose. It's a little thing compared to the wholesale waste, lunacy and misery of the war after all.

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gerom

12 Dec 2019
06:04:52am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you HockeyNut for the new post.
I found Luga and Ljady in Michel cat:
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I don't found Brac and US Army CSR.Where I find them?
I have a sheet of French Legion but I think it is a fake
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HockeyNut
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12 Dec 2019
07:45:54am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Hello Gerom,

In my Michel Special Catalog of 2017 you can find INSEL BRAC on page 1130.
(Spendenvignetten/Private ausgaben 1939/45)

FRANZENBAD is found at page 1134 of that same Catalog only no pictures of the stamps
(Spendenvignetten/Private ausgaben 1939/45)

At first glance your French Legion Bloc is OK.
Is on the back side a certify sign of any kind?

Here is mine bloc (Front / Black and the signs zoomed in)

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Certified by Dr Stein and Tust

Tust is a specialist on all stamps from France during WW2.

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HockeyNut
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12 Dec 2019
08:01:34am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Gerom,

I think that the sheet is real but the cancelation stamp is false.

The cancel date says 06-11-1944

From the internet :

"The Liberation of France was the result of the Allied operations Overlord and Dragoon in the summer of 1944. Most of France was liberated by September 1944. Some of the heavily fortified French Atlantic coast submarine bases remained stay-behind "fortresses" until the German capitulation in May 1945."

But if there is a sign on the back, then it is a differnt story of course.

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HockeyNut
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12 Dec 2019
08:37:49am
re: interesting facts and explanations

And because we are now in France :-)

Private donation vignettes issued by "Action Committee for the Legion of the Volontaires Francais contre le Bolchevisme" (LVF)
The vignettes did not have any postal meaning and could be used by the buyers as legion requestors on mailings for propaganda purposes.

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Flugpost vignetten without and with overprint.

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Legionars on the russian front

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St. Nazaire

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St. Nazaire

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gerom

12 Dec 2019
08:48:34am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Thanks HockeyNut
I found the 2 sets of stamps. In my catalog, the US Army are not listed (at page 1069 of my old cat.)
The "French Legion" can be identified by feeling the unevenness of the print (response received on a French site-"taille douce" print) ... which I did not notice. I concluded that it is false and unfortunately not signed.

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gerom

12 Dec 2019
09:06:28am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Another element for identification is the existence of lines in the mouth.
I noticed them in your sheet but unfortunately not mine.
You can confirm me?

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HockeyNut
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12 Dec 2019
10:37:10am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Thanks for that tip Gerom.

I have looked with a magnify glass and yes, I can see cleary the lines.
So the printing is indeed much better.




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gerom

12 Dec 2019
11:56:03am
re: interesting facts and explanations

I am registered on a French site where everyone can make lists of desired stamps (catalog number and photos)
Can I use the images of your stamps?
George

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HockeyNut
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12 Dec 2019
03:50:12pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Feel free to use them.

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HockeyNut
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12 Dec 2019
04:10:18pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

SUDETEN DEUTSCHES NIEDERLAND

DO NOT CONFUSE THIS WITH THE NETHERLANDS.

This set of stamps was never officially issued.
In the lower part of the stamps you can read :
"Sudetendeutsches Niederlande befreit 22.9.1938 durch Adolf Hitler"
Translated :
"Lower Sudetenland liberated 22.9.1938 through Adolf Hitler."

The three stamps Sudetendeutsches Niederland appeared in September 1938. Three identical values in Czech currency, in the colours green, violet and orange, showing a map of the so-called Schluckenauer Zipfels - then Sudetendeutsches Niederland, today called Böhmisches Niederland - which is still valid today. The area in the north of the present-day Czech Republic was once relatively densely populated. The largest towns were Warnsdorf, Rumburg and Schluckenau. The Germany special catalog writes about it "Unissued stamps", which doesn't bother us collectors - they are originals from the year 1938. Interesting for us collectors and of course of historical value.

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HockeyNut
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12 Dec 2019
04:22:37pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

KURLAND

In October 1944 Kurland (northern Latvia) became cut off from the rest of the eastern front and resupply was almost impossible. After a while postal material was running low and the stamps in every day use, could no longer be supplied. There was however a supply of the values seldom used, and these would replace the 6 Rfg stamps which had run out. ( 6 Rfg was the postcard rate). stamps of 5 Rfg, 10 Rfg and 20 Rfg were overprinted "KURLAND 6 (Rfg)". The 12 Rfg stamps used for 20g letters had also run out, and these were replaced by FELDPOST parcel stamps, overprinted "KURLAND 12 (Rfg)". All of these stamps were put on sale on the 20th April 1945.

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HockeyNut
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12 Dec 2019
04:46:14pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

ALPEN VORLAND
Post-war Alpenvorland Fantasy Issue

A set of stamps similar to the Provinz Laibach issue, were printed after the war and sold to collectors as a "newly discovered" or planned occupation issue, this set although of interest, are of no value and are pure fantasy.

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and of course all stamps signed on the back.

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HockeyNut
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12 Dec 2019
04:55:18pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Dear collectors,

I hope that my contribution to this board is appriciated.

The only thing I wanted to do is to give you collectors a little bit of history / background on the stamps issued in occupied countries by nazi-germany.

Hope you liked it so far.


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gerom

12 Dec 2019
06:05:41pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you very much HockeyNut.
For we ,collectors of Germany stamps(with Michel specialized cat.) your work is extraordinary.
For US collectors (with Scott cat,)these stamps don't exist(I think?)
For an example:
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The most valuable Official stamps of Germany Democratic Republic(Mi#29y-33y,granite paper,Wz.2/Wmk.297)don't have a number in Scott catalogue(2009 ed.)
I hope you continue your work with german stamps.

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mbo1142
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I thought I was wrong once, but I was mistaken.

12 Dec 2019
09:17:25pm

Approvals
re: interesting facts and explanations

HockeyNut,

I for one really appreciate your insight and information. I have just started collecting in this area and have purchased the new 2 volume Michel German Specialized catalogs in English. I may be asking questions in the future.

Again, thanks for your input.

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HockeyNut
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13 Dec 2019
09:07:21am
re: interesting facts and explanations

BELGIUM
During the period of Nazi occupation, some Belgians collaborated with their occupiers. There were pro-Nazi political organizations in both Flemish and Walloon communities before and during the war. The most significant were DeVlag, Verdinaso and Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (VNV) in Flanders as well as the Catholic Rex movement in Wallonia. Each of these movements had subtly different ideologies, their own paramilitary forces and printed their own newspapers. These organisations were also instrumental in encouraging Belgians to enlist into the German Army. Unlike the German-style National Socialist agenda of DeVlag, VNV appealed directly to a Flemish separatist agenda, though this message was never the main source of their popularity. Infighting between the groups, particularly VNV and DeVlag, was considerable.
Two separate units of the Waffen-SS, the Flemish Legion and the Walloon Legion, were recruited from Belgium during the occupation. Léon Degrelle, founder of the Rexist Party, served as commander of the Walloon Legion, which fought against the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe. A total of 15,000 Belgians in the "divisions" (neither ever greater than brigade strength) fought on the Eastern Front where the Walloon Legion was nearly annihilated in the Korsun–Cherkassy Pocket in 1944.

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Flemish legion serie 1

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Flemish legion serie 2 (It's an overprint of serie 1!)

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Flemish Legion serie 3

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Flemish Legion serie 4

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The famous LANGEMARK Stamp

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Flemish Legion serie 5

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Waloon Legion serie


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HockeyNut
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13 Dec 2019
09:11:34am
re: interesting facts and explanations

NATIONALES INDIEN
The Indian Volunteer Legion of the Waffen-SS (German: Indische Freiwilligen Legion der Waffen-SS), was a military unit raised during the Second World War in Nazi Germany. Intended to serve as a liberation force for British-ruled India, it was made up of Indian prisoners of war and expatriates in Europe. Because of its origins in the Indian independence movement, it was known also as the "Tiger Legion", and the "Azad Hind Fauj". Initially raised as part of the German Army, it was officially assigned to the Waffen-SS from August 1944. Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose initiated the legion's formation, as part of his efforts to win India's independence by waging war against Britain, when he came to Berlin in 1941 seeking German aid. The initial recruits in 1941 were volunteers from the Indian students resident in Germany at the time, and a handful of the Indian prisoners of war who had been captured during the North Africa Campaign. It would later draw a larger number of Indian prisoners of war as volunteers.
The majority of the troops of the Indian Legion were only ever stationed in Europe in non-combat duties, in the Netherlands and in France until the Allied invasion. They saw action in the retreat from the Allied advance across France, fighting mostly against the French Resistance. One company was sent to Italy in 1944, where it saw action against British and Polish troops and undertook anti-partisan operations.

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Notice the expencive 1+2 Rupie Black stamps all three versions !!!

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HockeyNut
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13 Dec 2019
09:26:21am
re: interesting facts and explanations

THE NETHERLANDS
In late 1940, Germany began recruiting volunteers in the Low Countries to serve in a primarily Dutch unit within the SS. In July 1941, the SS Volunteer Unit Niederlande (later renamed the SS Volunteer Legion Niederlande) was formed.
In November 1941, the Legion was ordered to the Eastern Front near Leningrad. Between January 1942 and April 1943, the Legion participated in the Siege of Leningrad, as well as the First and Second Battles of Ladoga.
In mid-1943, the Legion was reformed as a Panzer Grenadier Brigade and sent to Yugoslavia. It remained there until Christmas 1943, when it returned to the Army Group North on the Eastern Front.
Over the next year and a half, the Legion would conduct a fighting retreat as part of Army Group North, until finally trapped in the Courland Pocket. In January 1945, the Legion became one of the few units to be evacuated from the Pocket when it was transported by sea back to Germany.
The Legion was split into two Kampfgruppes, and once again assumed a position on the line facing the Red Army. In the final days of WWII, the de Ruyter Kampfgruppe dashed west to surrender to the American Army, while the General Seyffardt Kampfgruppe was destroyed at the Battle of Halbe.
The survivors of the Legion were eventually tried in the Netherlands after the war, with many receiving death sentences for their participation.

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HockeyNut
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13 Dec 2019
10:03:21am
re: interesting facts and explanations

SARNY (Ukraine)
The city was captured by Nazi Germany on July 8, 1941, following the repudiation by Germany of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact and the German attack on Russia on June 22, 1941.
At the time, Sarny had a Jewish population of approximately 5,000 persons. While Russian troops retreated, Ukrainian nationalists did not retreat with the Russian forces, but instead saw an opportunity to support the independence of Ukraine through alliances with the Nazis.
Subsequent to the German occupation, the Nazis commandeered Jews of Sarny as forced labour. In addition, the Jewish population was forced to turn over most of its assets to the Nazis, with orders largely enforced by Ukrainian police
In April 1942, a ghetto was established in Sarny, into which were forced the Jews from Sarny and the surrounding towns
In August 1942, Sarny was the scene of what came to be known as the Sarny Massacre. Over two days, on August 27–28, 1942, between 14,000 and 18,000 people, mostly Jews from Sarny and surrounding towns, including an estimated 100 Roma, were systematically executed in the ravines on the outskirts of the town, where pits had been prepared. The executions were carried out by German troops and Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, assisted by some 200 members of The city was captured by Nazi Germany on July 8, 1941, following the repudiation by Germany of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact and the German attack on Russia on June 22, 1941.

At the time, Sarny had a Jewish population of approximately 5,000 persons. While Russian troops retreated, Ukrainian nationalists did not retreat with the Russian forces, but instead saw an opportunity to support the independence of Ukraine through alliances with the Nazis.

Subsequent to the German occupation, the Nazis commandeered Jews of Sarny as forced labour. In addition, the Jewish population was forced to turn over most of its assets to the Nazis, with orders largely enforced by Ukrainian police.

In April 1942, a ghetto was established in Sarny, into which were forced the Jews from Sarny and the surrounding towns.

In August 1942, Sarny was the scene of what came to be known as the Sarny Massacre. Over two days, on August 27–28, 1942, between 14,000 and 18,000 people, mostly Jews from Sarny and surrounding towns, including an estimated 100 Roma, were systematically executed in the ravines on the outskirts of the town, where pits had been prepared. The executions were carried out by German troops and Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, assisted by some 200 members of Organization Todt. A memorial book of the history of the Jewish community in Sarny was published in 1961, containing first person accounts by community survivors.

During the Volhynian Genocide, commencing in 1943, Sarny was a shelter for ethnic Polish population of Volhynian countryside, massacred by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. In May 1943, German authorities created a Polish police unit, which defended the town from the Ukrainians. In 1944, most Poles were transported either to the General Government, or to the Third Reich as OST-Arbeiters. A memorial book of the history of the Jewish community in Sarny was published in 1961, containing first person accounts by community survivors.
During the Volhynian Genocide, commencing in 1943, Sarny was a shelter for ethnic Polish population of Volhynian countryside, massacred by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. In May 1943, German authorities created a Polish police unit, which defended the town from the Ukrainians. In 1944, most Poles were transported either to the General Government, or to the Third Reich as OST-Arbeiters.

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These stamps are very complex to determine. (I think that is the right term to use)





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HockeyNut
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13 Dec 2019
10:18:41am
re: interesting facts and explanations

WOSNESSENSK (Ukraine)
(Be aware that the germans speak about WOSNESSENSK instead of VOSNESSENSK)
The south Ukrainian city of Vosnessensk is located on the left bank of the southern bug at the confluence with the Mertwowid in the general district Nikolayev.
The district formed on 15-11-1941 included the Arbusinka Bratskoje, Jelanez and Vosnessensk rayons.

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HockeyNut
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13 Dec 2019
01:39:40pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Especially for Gerom :

DDR DIENSTMARKEN FÜR VERWALTUNGSPOST (DDR official stamps for administrative mail)

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(difference between OFFSETDRUCK (Offset) and BUCHDRUCK (typhography) )

That one is easy....

But now :
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Zirkelknopf geschlossen / Circle button closed
Zirkelknopf offen / Cicle button open
This is seen just under the hammer.
Hammerschatten links / The shadow of the hammer on the left

That is not difficult if you know where to look......

And then you have the three different watermarks as shown in the drawing

And you have 2 types of papier :
gewöhnliches papier / ordinary paper
gestrichenes papier / coated paper
WHO KNOWS THE DIFFERENCE?

And at last we have two different types :
I hohe smalle buchstaben / high small letters
II flache breite buchstaben / flat wide letters

That is very difficult for a starting philatelist...

P.S>
Forgot to tell that there are Nachdrucke/Neudrucke too (REPRINTS !)

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gerom

13 Dec 2019
02:27:12pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Hello HockeyNut
The stamps I posted aren't Mi#29y-33y (my example have in commun just the granite paper and type II design),everyone see the different perforation and they have watermark WZ.3.
But if you have the Scott cat.write me the no.I don't found them.
In my old catalog the two types of design are:

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For me the coated paper..glossy in the oblic light.It's correct?

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gerom

13 Dec 2019
02:52:29pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

The third type paper for DDR oficial stamps is gefasertes = granite paper:


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mbo1142
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I thought I was wrong once, but I was mistaken.

13 Dec 2019
02:58:18pm

Approvals
re: interesting facts and explanations

Gerom,

If your stamps are on granite paper and are the redrawn type II, then they are Scott #O37, O38, O39 and O42. Found in Official Section of DDR right after Air Post stamps.

Mel

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gerom

13 Dec 2019
03:37:15pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you Mel,
With my message I would just to say that Mi#29y-33y (granite paper,perf.13 1/2 x 12,typografied,wmk.297)don't have a no.in cat.Scott:

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And if you see the cotes....
Scott#O37-O42 have a different watermarked wmk.313)

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I thought I was wrong once, but I was mistaken.

13 Dec 2019
05:58:57pm

Approvals
re: interesting facts and explanations

Gerom,

After further reading of my Scotts, it indicates that #O18,(5pf) O19,(10pf) O21,(15pf) and O25,(40pf) were printed on granite paper in 1956. That would make the right perf and watermark for your stamps and the Scott number would be as indicated.

Mel

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gerom

14 Dec 2019
02:51:33am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you HockeyNut for the new post.
Of course, I consulted the Michel catalog to identify the postage stamps.
I do not know German and it is very difficult to understand the explanations in the catalog.
I have a doubt about the currencies used in Ukraine: pfennig, rubel, kopeken and karbowanez.
I did not find in the catalog at the beginning of Ukraine the specifications that appear in the other occupied countries (eg Russia - 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken = 10 pfennig)
What is the parity for these values that appear on the stamps?

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nigelc
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14 Dec 2019
05:31:25am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Hi gerom,

From Wikipedia:

"During the Nazi occupation of Ukraine in World War II, the German occupying government (Reichskommissariat Ukraine) issued banknotes denominated in karbovanets (karbowanez in German).

The karbovanets replaced the Soviet ruble at par and was in circulation between 1942 and 1945.

It was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 10 karbovantsiv = 1 Reichsmark."

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14 Dec 2019
07:23:05am
re: interesting facts and explanations

ESTONIA
On June 22, 1941, the German Wehrmacht in Hitler's Germany began the attack on the Soviet Union. In August 1941, Estonia was occupied by German troops and from then on Estonia was under a German military administration. The military administration allowed the former Estonian regional post to resume service fairly quickly. In July and August 1944, the Red Army made major breakthroughs in many places as part of Operation Bagration. And in the first half of October 1944, the Wehrmacht troops withdrew from Estonia. The Wehrmacht thus avoided encircling its troops in Estonia. Estonia itself fell under the Soviet occupation.
There were the following regulations regarding the postage of stamps in Estonia:
Currency: 1 ruble = 100 kopecks = 10 pfennigs

Transition notes were postage stamps of the Hindenburg and Hitler permanent series without overprints valid for franking. The stamp issue of Dorpat MiNr. 1-9 could be used in the later Ostland area. The MiNr. 4-9 could also be used in international mail in addition to its expenditure until December 31, 1942.
The first issue for the whole of Estonia were three stamps which came on sale 7th August 1941, with both the Estonian and German spelling of Estonia and emblems on the design.

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An interesting set was put on sale in September 41, showing views of Estonia, issued to raise funds for Estonia´s rebuilding programme, they remained valid until March 1942 and could be mixed with the German "OSTLAND" issue.

Local editions exists from the following cities :
Elwa, Hummuli, Moiseküll, Nüggen, Odenpäh, Pernau, Puka, Wesenberg

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Remark :
The stamps from the Second World War occupation for Estonia number 1-9 are in price quite available. Some of the local issues in Estonia during the German occupation, depending on the issue, can be a challenge for the stamp collector. The stamps from Estonia have a variety of very valuable prices. The local editions with their hand stamp overprints are a source of popular and valuable printing errors. The short and postage periods from 7.8-1941 till 19.8.1941 and from 29.9-1941 till 30.11.1941 with different value levels are a treasure trove for real rarities. Stamps from Estonia during the German occupation are still very popular and are not cheap to buy in good condition.

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14 Dec 2019
07:31:11am
re: interesting facts and explanations

LATVIA
Latvia issued Soviet stamps with the overprint "LATVIJA", with the date of liberation 1st July 1941, this was a set of six stamps which came on sale on the 17th July 1941 onwards. The issue was valid for the whole of Latvia, there being no local town issues.
After that the stamps for the Reichskommissariat Ostland and regular German stamps came into use, in October 1941.

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LATVIAN LEGION STAMPS
This is a picture taken from the internet showing the proofs for a Latvian Legion issues, which may never have been printed.
So I do not own this set myself :-(

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14 Dec 2019
07:38:58am
re: interesting facts and explanations

LITHUANIA
On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Following the German occupation, Soviet stamps were overprinted "Nepriklausoma Lietuva 1941-VI-23" (Independent Lithuania 1941-VI-23) in 1941. Lithuania became part of the Reichskommissariat Ostland, the German occupation administration. Stamps were issued for use in the Reichskommissariat Ostland by overprinting "Ostland" on stamps of Germany.

The southern area of the country issued its own stamps on 16th July 1941 with the overprint "VILNUS". Some other towns issed their own stamps with their town names, but in some cases only numbered a few dozen stamps, so were not widely used.

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Local editions exists from the following cities :
Alsedschen, Ponewesch, Rossingen, Rakischki, Telschen, Wilkomir, Zargrad, Anyksciai

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Ponewesch

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Rakischki

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Wilkomir

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Telschen

All with certificates of course.........

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14 Dec 2019
07:48:56am
re: interesting facts and explanations

ALBANIA
The Germans occupied Albania on the 10th September 1943 and an Albania collaborational government was formed on the 14th September 1943. The German forces withdrew from Albania on 29th November 1944.

The first issue of postage stamps for Albania consisted of former Italian occupation stamps with a "14 Shtator 1943" overprint ( 14th September 1943).

Nine other stamps were overprinted, as were a series of five Postage Due
stamps which although they were ready for use, they never reached the
post offices, however a few have reached post-war collectors and they command high prices.
22nd September 1944 The second ( and last ) Albanian issue, printed in Vienna, were charity stamps "Refugees and air raid damage" showing one of the set, all the set were of the same design, just different values and colours.

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14 Dec 2019
08:07:55am
re: interesting facts and explanations

MACEDONIA
In September 1944 the Bulgarian surrender caused a political vacuum in Macedonia, which the Germans filled with a local puppet government. The German postal authorities took over the post in Macedonia. The post continued to use postage stamps of Bulgaria until the overprinted set were available. Macedonia had been occupied by Bulgaria since 1941.

By the time the stamps were issued on the 28th October 1944, more than half of the country had been overrun by the Soviets and partisans. The local government in Macedonia could only rule so long as the Germans remained in the country. The Germans were fighting a withdrawal northwards and the last of the troops left Macedonia on the 13th November 1944.

That is to say the local occupation stamps were on sale, and valid, for only two weeks! of the local people wished to be caught with the stamps when the Soviets marched in and as a result some 98% of those stamps sold were sold to Wehrmacht troops passing through.

The set of eight stamps with the Macedonia Overprint
The date on the overprint is not the date of issue, but the date that the local government was set up by the German authorities. The original stamps are Bulgarian, with the word "MACEDONIA" within the overprint.
There are many variations or mistakes within the overprint, for example upside down or a full stop missing etc.

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14 Dec 2019
08:10:37am
re: interesting facts and explanations

ZANTE
The Ionian Islands were occupied by Italy in 1941 and issued Italian stamps with the overprint "Isole Ionie". After the fall of Italy in September 1943 all of the Ionian Islands were authorised to use Greek stamps and the Italian stamps were no longer valid.
There was a shortage of stamps and it would take a while for Greek stamps to reach the island. The Wehrmacht Kommandant Hauptmann Lüth, together with the islands postal authorities, gave the order for Italian stamps (which were already overprinted with "Isole Ionie") to be given a further Greek overprint.
The stamps went on sale on the 22nd October 1943, mostly with a black overprint, but some were in a red overprint. Three stamps in total, 25 Cent, a 50 Cent and a 50 Cent Airmail stamp. A 10 Cent stamp was overprinted, but never made it to the counter before the stamps became invalid.
Very few stamps were known used, most of those known on cover were sent to a bank in Athens. The stamps were withdrawn on the 29th October 1943 and the hand dies containing the overprint was ordered destroyed. The stamps had been in use for only seven days!
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gerom

14 Dec 2019
08:27:26am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Hi Nigelc,
I searched for Michel for 1 hour trying to translate when google search gives the answer in 1 second.
Thank you

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14 Dec 2019
08:33:06am
re: interesting facts and explanations

ZARA
In September 1943 the Italian surrender caused a political vacuum in the Balkan Peninsula, which the Germans filled. The German postal authorities took over the post in Albania, Montenegro, Kotor, Macedonia, Laibach (Ljubijana), Zante and Zara.

Zara was an Italian enclave on the Dalmation coast of former Yugoslavia. It had previously been part of the Austrian Empire, but had been taken over by Italy in 1919 as a naval base and the postal service became part of the Italian postal authorities using Italian stamps.

After the fall of Italy the Germans occupied Zara and placed the postal services under German control. A few weeks later Italian stamps were overprinted with "Deutsche Besetzung Zara" (German Occupation Zara).

Almost a million stamps were overprinted, far too many for the local population. However, a number of the stamps found their way to German stamp collectors. This may have been the German postal authorities making some money late in the war? Who knows.

The lower values were overprinted between 50,000 and 100,000 times, some of the higher values, however, were very low, with only 47 or 32 examples known, which is less than a complete sheet of postage stamps!

The stamps were issued on the 5th October 1943 ( a second issue was placed on sale on the 6th November 1943) and on the town was destroyed during a heavy bombing raid on the 16th December 1943. Two weeks later the Germans ordered the evacuation of Zara, with effect from the 31st December 1943. Any civilians found in the ruins after that date were to be shot as looters.

Well here is my part of Zara stamps :

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14 Dec 2019
12:26:15pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

During the various postings I saw a remark about the postage costs within the different occupied countries.

Hereby an overview:

Sudetenland : The domestic fees of the German Reich applied, converted to a currency ratio of 10: 1. 1 Kc = 100 Heller = 10 Pfg
Albania : 1 Frank = 100 Qind
Belgium : 1 Frank = 100 Centimes
Bohemia and Moravia : 1 Koruna (= czech crown) = 100 Heller
Brac : 1 (Croatian) Kuna = 100 Lipa
Denmark : 1 Krone = 100 Ore
Alsace : The postal charges of Alsace corresponded to the German Empire. 1 Mark = 100 Pfg
Estonia : 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken = 10 Pfg
France : 1 Franc = 100 Centimes
General government : 1 Zloty = 100 Groschen = 50 Pfg
Channel Islands : 1 Shilling = 12 Pence
Kotor : 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi (and from september 1944 1 Reichsmark = 100 Pfg)
Kurland : 1 Reichsmark = 100 Pfg
Ljubljana (Laibach): 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi
Latvia : 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken
Lithuania : 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken
Lotharingen : The postal charges of Lotharingen corresponded to the German Empire. 1 Mark = 100 Pfg
Luxemburg : The postal charges of Luxemburg corresponded to the German Empire. 1 Mark = 100 Pfg
Montenegro : 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi ( and from 1944 1 Reichsmark = 100 Pfg)
Ostland (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and part of Belarus) :
From the day of the march into Ostland until the issue of the Ostland stamps on 4-11-1941, all german postage stamps were valid as franking.
1 Reichsmark = 100 Pfg
Russia : 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken = 10 Pfg
Ljady : The stamps of ljady served to cover the costs of the messenger mail (by boat) of the german district command in the guerrilla district
1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken = 10 Pfg
Serbia : 1 Dinar = 100 Para
Ukraine : Until the Ukraine stamps were issued on 14-11-1941, all German postage stamps were valid for postage. 1 Mark = 100 Pfg
After that date, the rubel was used in some districts (1 rubel = 100 Kopeken)
Zante (Zakynthos) : 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi = 8 Drachmen
Zara : 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi

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15 Dec 2019
10:39:17am
re: interesting facts and explanations

UKRAINE

It took me a while to translate but here it is.

Special editions of the German civil administration before the opening of the official mail.
In the remote area commissariats of Alexanderstadt, Sarny and Vosnessensk there was a ukrainian post office until the german official mail was set up.
It was launched and monitored by the German civil administration, existed for several months and provided the entire business and civilian postal and telegraph operations.
Cancellation partly with pen stroke, partly with existing or newly procured postmarks.

Gebiet Alexanderstadt:
Expression B. ALEX. (Abbreviation for Bolschaja ALEXandrowka).
August 16, 1941 is the date of the conquest of the capital Nikolayev.
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nr 1 on letter
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nr 4 II
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nr 5 III
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nr 7 III
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nr 10 III

Gebiet Sarny:
Control signs were stuck to the postal items to ensure that the prescribed cash franking was invoiced.
After the postal service was taken over by the German official mail on 5-12-1941, these control marks became invalid.
For examples see previous posts.....

Gebiet Wosnessensk :
For examples see previous posts.....

"Hilfspostausgaben" of the German civil administration after deducting the official mail.
After the step-by-step withdrawal of the German service post, which took place at the same time as the troops were returning, the area commissioners still in charge took over the post connection to the next immediate German service post offices.
The special fee charged for this (Koerier fee and postal fee) was acknowledged by a special stamp which was canceled by the dateless official seal of the respective area commissioner. The postage cleared in this way was then franked at the competent post office with Hitler stamps with the imprint "Ukraine" in accordance with the postal fee and canceled with a postmark.

South Ukraine :
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North Ukraine :
Luboml
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Wladimir-Wolynsk
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Gorochow :
I do not own this stamp but the internet gives help here....
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Gorochow
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Luboml
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Wladimir-Wolynsk
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15 Dec 2019
12:50:51pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Alsace / Elsass

After the ceasefire with France, the French stamps remained valid until 17-08-1940.
Up to that day, mixed frankings with numbers 1 to 16 were also possible.
From 15-07-1941 the stamps of the german empire, lorraine and luxembourg were as valid as the stamps of Alsace in the old empire, Lorraine and Luxembourg.
From the beginning, the German official mail only used German stamps without overprints.

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15 Dec 2019
12:52:23pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Lorraine / Lothringen

After the ceasefire with France, the French stamps remained valid until 25-08-1940.
Up to that day, mixed frankings with numbers 1 to 16 were also possible.
From 01-04-1941, the stamps of the German Empire, Alsace and Luxembourg were also valid.

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15 Dec 2019
12:54:09pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Luxembourg

The stamps of the grand duchy lost their validity on 30-09-1940, but could still be applied until 02-10-1940.
Up to that day, mixed frankings with numbers 1 to 16 were also possible.
From 01-04-1941, the stamps of the German Empire, Alsace and Lorraine were also valid.

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15 Dec 2019
04:38:43pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

KOTOR

Kotor was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918 and was annexed to Yugoslavia after the end of the war in 1918.
In April 1941 Kotor, under the occupation of Yugoslavia, fell under the Italian occupation and Italian stamps were used.
The post office set up for the Boka Kotorska area (Bay of Cattaro) set up its own regional post office under the supervision of the German military administration.
Before issuing their own stamps, stamps 1 to 9 from Montenegro, regional mail under German occupation, and initially Italian postage stamps without imprint were in use.

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15 Dec 2019
04:40:46pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

MONTENEGRO

In September 1943, the German military administration replaced the previous Italian administration (Governatorato del Montenegro).
The field administration of the German administration was the field command 1040, which soon had the official name of field command Montenegro.
The area of Kotor (Cattaro) received its own administration and post.
From 10-11-1943 a civil administration was established under a "National Administrative Committee".

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16 Dec 2019
12:14:48pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

DEAR READERS

I HAVE UPDATED A PREVIOUS POST ABOUT BRAC.
I believe it was post number 9.


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16 Dec 2019
12:23:30pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

KOTOR

Kotor was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918 and was annexed to Yugoslavia after the end of the war in 1918.
In April 1941 Kotor, under the occupation of Yugoslavia, fell under the Italian occupation and Italian stamps were used.
The post office set up for the Boka Kotorska area (Bay of Cattaro) set up its own regional post office under the supervision of the German military administration.
Before issuing their own stamps, stamps 1 to 9 from Montenegro, regional mail under German occupation, and initially Italian postage stamps without imprint were in use.

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ArtStamp

16 Dec 2019
06:03:36pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

This thread is awesome! I congratulate Henry Van Berkel for such an exhaustive research!

I do not collect anything related to occupation of territories by foreign powers. However, I find this thread absolutely interesting (Interesting Facts and Explanations) and riveting. The author should present his findings in both History 101: WWII, or Graduate course at any college or university. It’s scope is vast, and compelling.

First of all, when talking or studying any foreign occupation one obtains only a general sense of that life changing event for countless human beings. However, showing ephemera (as postage stamps are) one is thrown into the daily lives of individuals, nations and territories that suffered the outrages of that occupation. This manner of presenting those facts is not only interesting, it is downright an exceptional example of Living History.

Seeing World War II today from the perspective of a topical collector of postage stamps of Territorial Occupation by Foreign Powers during World War II brings home the immensity of that event which affected millions of people in so many places.

I am reminded of Prof. David Scott’s analysis of postage stamps as “places of memory.” He analyzes these small pieces of paper, supposedly insignificant as most ephemera is, from the point of view of historian Pierre Nora, who as a modern historian “attempt(s) to inventory and then analyze the places in which traces of national memory might be still incarnated.” (Scott: The semiotics of the lieu de memoire. The postage stamp as a site of cultural memory. Semiotica 142 (2002), p. 107.) Although Professors Scott’s and Nora’s work is focused on sites considered important for the patrimony of a nation--in this specific case, the French nation’s monuments, art, and architecture featured on her postage stamps--one can see in the stamps that illustrate this thread, and the explanations—Interesting Facts and Explanations—an excellent example of how postage stamps are more than mere pieces of papers one can affix to an envelope. In this case specifically these tiny pieces of paper convey very important meaning for both the Occupying Forces and the Subjugated Peoples.

The author of the thread should be congratulated. Kudos, Henry.



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17 Dec 2019
08:05:51am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you Artstamp for all that credit.

I started this because many people here save German stamps but cannot read the German language or only poorly. (No offence!)
Most of what I have written comes from the Michel catalog or some other collectors, I only translated and illustrated it with stamps from my own collection.
With the stamps that I do not have, I have mentioned that too.
I started collecting stamps when I was 14. I read a lot about stamps and there history.
So.........

For this thread I will add 4 more issues. (SERBIEN, LAIBACH, GUERNSEY and JERSEY)

For the next thread I will pay attention to the subject FELDPOST of the germans during WW2.

Bless you all and for now MERRY CHRISTMAS.

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17 Dec 2019
09:06:17am
re: interesting facts and explanations

GUERNSEY
In 1940 the German authorities were content to allow the further use of British stamps, but with the post offices on the Channel Islands now cut off from the British mainland, it was only a question of time before supplies of stamps ran low.
The most common stamp in use was the 1 penny stamp and it was this one that ran out first.
The authorities issued permission for twopenny stamps to be used cut in half, or in philatelic terms, bicected.
This was authorized originally for Guernsey only, but bicects were soon seen in Jersey as well.
Much more rare are the King George V and the King Edward VIII stamps which were also bisected, these come from stamp collectors resident on the Islands during the occupation.
Of course the bisects were nothing more than short term until new stamps could be issued.
Guernsey included the islands of Alderney, Herm, Jethou and Sark.
The following issue was designed by E.W.Vaudin and printed by the "Guernsey Press Co. Ltd".
During this time existing British stamps continued in use and are known mixed on covers.
In 1942 a paper shortage meant that some stamps were printed blue French bank note paper normally used in printing money (French watermarked).

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JERSEY
Jersey included the islands of Les Dirouilles, Les Ecrehous and Les Minquiers.
The first issue was designed by N.V.L.Rybot and printed by the Jersey Evening Post.

The Jersey Issues secret.
The stamp designer wanted to hit back at the occupation and this little secret came out after the war......
In the design of both Jersey stamps there is an "A" in each corner, small and difficult to see, but it is there.
AAAA = Ad Avernum Atrox Adolphe, or if you want it in plain English, "To the Devil with Hitler".
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In June 1943 it was decided to print a scenic set of six stamps for Jersey, they were designed by E.Blampied and printed by H.Cortot.
The stamps were printed by the French State Printing Works in Paris and shipped back to the island.

All of the occupation issues for both Guernsey and Jersey remained in use after the war and were valid until 13th April 1946.

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17 Dec 2019
09:13:43am
re: interesting facts and explanations

LAIBACH
The Province of Ljubljana (Italian: Provincia di Lubiana, Slovene: Ljubljanska pokrajina, German: Provinz Laibach) was the central-southern area of Slovenia.
In 1941, it was annexed by Fascist Italy, and after 1943 occupied by Nazi Germany.
Created on May 3, 1941, it was abolished on May 9, 1945, when the Slovene Partisans and partisans from other parts of Yugoslavia liberated it from the Nazi Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral.
Its administrative centre was Ljubljana.
During World War II, Slovenia was in a unique situation.
While Greece shared its experience of being trisected, Slovenia was the only country that experienced a further step—absorption and annexation into neighboring Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Hungary.
After Yugoslavia was invaded by Axis Powers on 6 April 1941, Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed northern Slovenia.
The ethnic German Gottscheers were moved out of the province because Hitler opposed having them in the Italian occupation zone.

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Do not confuse these stamps with those of ALPEN VORLAND !!!
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NOT ISSUED !
On cardboard paper !!!




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17 Dec 2019
09:17:12am
re: interesting facts and explanations

SERBIEN
The postal services in Serbia came under the full control of the German military occupational forces.
It should be noted that Croatia is not listed in the German catalogues because Croatia had the status of an independant country which had placed itself under German protection.
Serbia was occupied during the invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece in April 1941.
The first occupation stamps and postcards were Yugoslavian pre-war issues which had been overprinted SERBIEN which was the countries name in German and then from the end of 1941 most issues were new designs with the countries name in Serbian.
In the begining postal activity was wide spread, but within a few months partisan warfare made postal deliveries uncertain at best.
Postal services were limited to the "Volksdeutsche" area of the Banat (on the border with Hungary), Belgrade and some of the larger towns along the German supply routes to Greece.
Stamps overprinted "BANAT" are not official overprints.

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Set 1

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Set 2

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Set 3, 4 and 5

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17 Dec 2019
01:49:05pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

There are a lot of stamp from Serbian. So here is part II

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Souvenier sheets 1 and 2

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Now these series are all different!!!!
Thought you have seen it by now? Wrong !

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All these are different too......
Fun for the philatelist...???....

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17 Dec 2019
01:52:49pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Well and there is more from Serbia :

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and 2 souvenir sheets more

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17 Dec 2019
01:55:59pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

We are not there yet..............

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And finally the last one.

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17 Dec 2019
07:53:06pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

Further to HockeyNut's post about the German occupation of the the Channel Islands, StampoRama members might be interested in my extensive web page, The Channel Islands at War.

Bob

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ArtStamp

20 Dec 2019
10:58:44am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Bob, your Channel Islands at War is excellent. I had read it a while back.
Of interest is John Nettles book, Jewels and Jack Boots. The documentary was also extremely informative. However, I failed to see any mention of the Postal System or postage stamps during the occupation.
Keep up the good work.
I see that HockeyNut has included a section on the Channel Islands postage stamps during the Nazi occupation.

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20 Dec 2019
12:13:22pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

"Further to HockeyNut's post about the German occupation of the the Channel Islands, StampoRama members might be interested in my extensive web page, The Channel Islands at War.

Bob"



Thanks Bob.

It is all about reading nowadays.

knowledge
knowledge
knowledge
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30 Dec 2019
11:10:26am
re: interesting facts and explanations

"'
Hard to believe that, in the midst of a 60-day street-by-street battle, some dude at the local post office decided that what they really needed was their own postage to - what - stiffen their resolve?

Next thing, someone will post the Viet Cong's Danang local overprints of 1968.

Barricade building, food smuggling, guard duty ... so many things to do in a desperate battle, and some postal clerk decided that what they really need is their own postage?

Cheers,

/s/ ikeyPikey"



Well maybe hard to believe but I recently came across a website that explaines a lot of what you can not believe.

http://www.exponet.info/exhibit.php?exhibit_ID=651&lng=DE

I took a picture of a part of page 34 and the translation follows this.

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Warsaw Uprising - 1944

During the Warsaw Uprising (1-8-1944 to 2-10-1944), a postal delivery service was set up in the liberated parts of Warsaw. The transport was mainly carried out by Boy Scouts - POCZTA HACERSKA - (hence the name Boy Scout Post). The mail was transported free of charge, and the sender contributed to the "postage" by donating food and clothing.
In 1966 Mr. .......


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30 Dec 2019
11:17:55am
re: interesting facts and explanations

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31 Dec 2019
08:00:37am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Found a Polish stamp from 1984 taken from an original photo of that time to honor those BOYSCOUTS.

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I rest my case...

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01 Jan 2020
08:41:09am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Now something else.

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The Anschluss souvenir card above incorporates a Hitler stamp of 1937

Ever wondered how the postal system went in Austria after "der Anschluss" in 1938?
I found a very interesting site that gives an insight into it.
Moreover, it is written in the English language.
(to make it easier for you, I think Happy )
Here it is :

http://www.austrianphilately.com/anschlus/index.htm

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01 Jan 2020
09:07:14am
re: interesting facts and explanations

MEMELLAND

On December 11, 1938, a pro-Nazi unit list received 87.2% of the vote, a situation similar to the Sudetenland, the free city of Danzig and the Belgian East Cantons, which were all border areas outside Germany with a German majority where Nazi-inspired Front Parties ( Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront, Heimattreue Front) the traditional and democratic pro-German parties. Although German speakers were only half the population in Memelland, the desire to join the German Empire was also supported by many bilingual Memelland people, dissatisfied with the authoritarian Lithuanian policy.

On March 22, 1939, the area became German again when Lithuania handed it over to Nazi Germany "voluntarily" after a Berlin ultimatum, hoping for German support for the claims to the city of Vilnius, now the capital of Lithuania but then Polish under the name Wilna. After the transfer to Germany, 21,000 residents fled from Memelland to Lithuania: Half of them were Lithuanians who had come to live there since 1919 and, moreover, 9,000 Jews and other German emigrants who had fled Nazi terror.

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Local issue : Deutsche Verwaltung from 22-03-1939 vor Memelland

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01 Jan 2020
10:18:15am
re: interesting facts and explanations

Sudetenland
Local official editions; Original stamps from Czechoslovakia with overprints
The area along the Sudetes belonged to Austria as the outskirts of Bohemia before it merged with Czechoslovakia in 1918. The Munich Agreement of 29 and 30 September 1938 made the approval of the annexation of the Sudetenland to Germany poor. In the course of the Sudeten crisis, Czech troops cleared some German-speaking areas even before the Munich Agreement was signed. As a result, the Sudeten German Party began to issue its own stamps in the Asch and Rumburg areas from 21 September 1938.

On October 1, 1938, the Sudetenland was ceded from Czechoslovakia to the German Empire. Until the arrival of the stocks of German stamps, some of the stamps of Czechoslovakia were still used unchanged, some of them were printed and sold at the post office counters. The use of the stamps of Czechoslovakia without and with imprint ended after Circular decree of the OPD Dresden no later than October 20, 1938. After that only stamps of the German Post were valid for postage.

There are only seven issues authorized by the Sudeten German Party. The overprints were made in great haste, but this was done very carefully. However, any special features that occur, such as reversed printing colors or types, upside down or wrong printing are very rare.

The stamps overprinted in many other cities and towns apart from the editions cataloged here only have so-called "style tenderman remembrance overprints" and are not to be regarded as post office editions. Special "exemptions" cancellations were also used.

devaluations
The following stamp types were used in the transition period:
• unchanged postmark of Czechoslovakia,
• stamp with removed Czech inscription,
• old Austrian postmarks,
• temporary stamp (mostly single-line place name),
• Special stamps (mostly rubber stamps), at least always with the additions; they were drawn in by the Reichspanel in early November 1938.

Postage and newspaper stamps were used as ordinary postage stamps.

Really used and postage paid postage receipts are very rare (-, -) in the expenditure of the Sudetenland. With the exception of Rumburg, the letter prices apply to collector's or typesetting letters or for over-franked documents.

There are counterfeit and stamp counterfeits of all issues. (BPP) check of all expensive brands is strongly recommended!

postal charges
The domestic fees of the German Reich applied, converted according to the currency ratio 10: 1 (10 H = 1 Pf, 1 Kc until 10.10.1! 1: 111 10 Pf), then 12 Pf.


Asch
Asch is located in the so-called "Ascher Zipfel" between the Fichtel and Erz Mountains, just a few kilometers from the Bavarian Border.
Already on September 21, 1938 the Czech organs had left the area and the Sudeten German party took over the state


Karlsbad
Karlsbad is located between the Kaiserwald and Duppauer Gebirge at the mouth of the Tepl in the Eger and was the most important spa in the Egerland
Since after the first issue of the own stamps on October 1, 1938, the post office was again in the possession of approx. 1:30 p.m. to October 3, 1938, initial cancellations (EST) from October 1st. very sought after (not all brands were available on October 1st).


Konstantinbad
The health resort Konstantinsbad is located in the West Bohemian Bäden triangle in the middle of forests around Pilsen
The postal administration also organized the postal system for the towns of Girsch, Neumarkt, Plau (with Marienbad), Tschihana, Weseritz and Zebau.


Niklasdorf
Niklasdorf is located in Moravian-Silesia only about 10 km from the former German border, and was highly competitive during the Sudeten crisis.
From 22-09-1938 to 27-09-1938 the post office changed hands several times between the Czechs and Free Corps people of the Sudeten German Party.


Reichenburg and Maffersdorf
The industrial cities of Reichenberg and Maffersdorf (today Liberec and Vratislavice nad Nisou) are located in the northern Sudeten area of German origin, close to the borders with Germany and Poland.
Similar but distinguishable hand stamp overprints were used at the two post offices.
The main distinguishing features are the position and shape of the call sign, as well as the imprint color.


Rumburg
The city of Rumburg (Rumburk) is located on the Mandau in the north of the Czech Republic, near the German border.
The district of Rumburg (so-called North Bohemian Netherlands) consisted of about 50 places, 42 of them with their own post offices. The main and distribution post office was Rumburg.
The area was cleared by the Czech administration on September 21-22, 1938.


Sudeten Deutsches Niederland
See a previous post in this thread.


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01 Jan 2020
12:25:21pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

I do not have a lot of these local stamps.
But the ones I got I will display here.

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ASCH nr 1-5

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KARLSBAD Nr 10-15

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KARLSBAD Nr 30-38

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REICHENBERG Nr 21-24

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REICHENBERG Nr 45B

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RUMBURG 1-9

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RUMBURG Nr 21-23

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RUMBURG Nr 25

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RUMBURG 36-43


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RUMBURG 49-52

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02 Jan 2020
02:00:29pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

General Gouvernement

The General Government (German: Generalgouvernement, Polish: Generalne Gubernatorstwo), also referred to as the General Governorate for the occupied Polish Region (German: Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete), was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, Slovakia and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The newly occupied Second Polish Republic was split into three zones: the General Government in its centre, Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany in the west, and Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union in the east.
The territory was expanded substantially in 1941, after the German Invasion of the Soviet Union, to include the new District of Galicia.
The basis for the formation of the General Government was the "Annexation Decree on the Administration of the Occupied Polish Territories".
Announced by Hitler on October 8, 1939, it claimed that the Polish government had totally collapsed.
This rationale was utilized by the German Supreme Court to reassign the identity of all Polish nationals as stateless subjects, with the exception of the ethnic Germans of interwar Poland—who, disregarding international law, were named the only rightful citizens of the Third Reich.

The General Government was run by Germany as a separate administrative unit for logistical purposes.
When the Wehrmacht forces invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941 (Operation Barbarossa), the area of the General Government was enlarged by the inclusion of the Polish regions previously annexed to the USSR.
Within days East Galicia was overrun and incorporated into the District of Galicia.
Until 1945, the General Government comprised much of central, southern, and southeastern Poland within its prewar borders (and of modern-day Western Ukraine), including the major Polish cities of Warsaw, Kraków, Lwów (now Lviv, renamed Lemberg), Lublin (see Lublin Reservation), Tarnopol (see history of Tarnopol Ghetto), Stanis?awów (now Ivano-Frankivsk, renamed Stanislau; see Stanis?awów Ghetto), Drohobycz, and Sambor (see Drohobycz and Sambor Ghettos) and others.
Geographical locations were renamed in German.

The administration of the General Government was composed entirely of German officials, with the intent that the area was to be colonized by Germanic settlers who would reduce the local Polish population to the level of serfs before their eventual biological extermination.
The Nazi German rulers of the Generalgouvernement had no intention of sharing power with the locals throughout the war, regardless of their ethnicity and political orientation.
The authorities rarely mentioned the name "Poland" in legal correspondence.
The only exception to this was the General Government's Bank of Issue in Poland (Polish: Bank Emisyjny w Polsce, German: Emissionbank in Polen).

Source : Wikipedia

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02 Jan 2020
02:08:24pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

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Nr 1 - 13

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Nr 14 - 39

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Nr 40 - 51

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Nr 52 - 55

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Nr 56 - 58

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Nr 59 - 62

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Nr 71 - 82

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02 Jan 2020
02:13:33pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

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Nr 83 - 88

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Nr 105 - 109

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Nr 113 - 116

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Dienstmarken 1 - 15

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Dienstmarken 16 - 24

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Dienstmarken 25 - 36

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Zustellungsmarken 1-4

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02 Jan 2020
02:19:08pm
re: interesting facts and explanations

The following pictures are no stamps but so-called "Evidence marks".

They were inserted in the passports of the railway workers.
This version with the imprint 1944 for the district "General Governement"

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HockeyNut

09 Dec 2019
07:56:51am

DIE DEUTSCHE DIENSTPOST

The Dienstpost was run by German postal officials and dealt with all post which did not come under the military Field Post system in the occupied areas. Normally the Dienstpost was for German civilians who worked in German occupied countries, although soldiers could use it as well. Sometimes the Dienstpost office would be in the same building as the FELDPOST, and in some cases even on the same postal counter.

The reason for "Dienstpost" in World War Two was for a secure way to get post to Germany (or to another country under German control ), unlike the local postal service which ran the risk of being intercepted and opened by partisan bands. Infact in many areas, local people in occupied countries were forbidden to use the Dienstpost system, it being reserved for German Nationals, or foreigners in German service. Dienstpost could use all German stamps, and can only be identified by the Dienstpost cancellation.

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HockeyNut

09 Dec 2019
08:10:36am

re: interesting facts and explanations

FIELD COMMANDANT OF PLESKAU
The Commandant of Pleskau (Northern Front), unable to get a supply of stamps for the town, issued both German and Soviet stamps with the overprint "PLESKAU". When the Reichspost head office in Berlin found out that German stamps had been illegally overprinted, the issue was withdrawn, but a number had already gone through the post.

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The Field Commandant ordered the printing of local stamps for Pleskau, they went on sale in October 1941, and were again issued in March 1942 with the colours changed. The money made on the sale of the stamps went to the local Pleskau Kindergarten.

All Pleskau stamps became invalid when German "OSTLAND" stamps were issued in May 1942.
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HockeyNut

09 Dec 2019
04:58:44pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

WARSAW UPRISING
On 1 August 1944, the Polish Home Army (the Armia Krajowa, or AK) launched a major operation in an attempt to liberate Warsaw from Nazi German control. This operation would come to be known as the Warsaw Uprising.

Initially, the AK was able to gain control over large portions of the city. However, the Russians chose to withhold any assistance, and over the next two months, the Germans eventually gained the upper hand. On 2 October 1944, the final AK elements surrendered, returning full control of the city back over to the Germans.

During the 2 months in which the Poles controlled portions of the city, there were several provisional postage stamps designed and/or issued for use. Here are a few.

The first overprint issue consisted of overprints of the Generalgouvernement Hitler Head issues. The overprint reads "Poczta Polowa 1-VIII-1944 Warszawa", or "Fieldpost 1 August 1944 Warsaw". These were never issued for use.

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P.S. The stamps are from my collection

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ikeyPikey

09 Dec 2019
08:07:31pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

'
Hard to believe that, in the midst of a 60-day street-by-street battle, some dude at the local post office decided that what they really needed was their own postage to - what - stiffen their resolve?

Next thing, someone will post the Viet Cong's Danang local overprints of 1968.

Barricade building, food smuggling, guard duty ... so many things to do in a desperate battle, and some postal clerk decided that what they really need is their own postage?

Cheers,

/s/ ikeyPikey


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"I collect stamps today precisely the way I collected stamps when I was ten years old."
nlroberts1961

12,8 cm Kanone 43 L/55 in blueprints only

09 Dec 2019
11:22:52pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

It sounds peculiar to modern times but taking over the post office was seen as a sign of winning or gaining control, later it was the radio station. In 1916 the IRA occupied the Dublin GPO. You have to rethink to a time without TV or radio. Only way to get a message around was the post or the press. Think of it as cheap propaganda and/or PRIDE if nothing else. I think if you want to understand history it is not enough to read the last book on the subject. You need to read the papers, letters and even the books that were written AT THE TIME however inaccurate they may be deemed by modern study in order to get a real sense of what was going on.

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"Euros think a 100 miles is a long way, Americans think a 100 yrs is a long time..."
gerom

10 Dec 2019
01:59:08am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Hi HockeyNut
Beautiful stamps and valuable at the same time.
I found them in cat.Michel:
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gerom

10 Dec 2019
02:55:17am

re: interesting facts and explanations

The "Pleskau" stamps are also mentioned in the Michel catalog.
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Are they expertised?
Thank you for posted them.

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Jansimon

collector, seller, MT member
10 Dec 2019
03:39:38am

Approvals

re: interesting facts and explanations

I suppose all the stamps need expertizing as forgeries are available in abundance, especially on sites like ebay. I see all kinds of supposedly unlisted varieties that are just recent creations / fantasies or whatever to call them, used to lure naive collectors with big wallets...

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www.etsy.com/nl/shop ...
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HockeyNut

10 Dec 2019
06:07:57am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Well fellow collectors,
Most of the more expensive stamps are provided with an inspection or a photo certificate.

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HockeyNut

10 Dec 2019
06:32:13am

re: interesting facts and explanations

******************************
UPDATED UPDATED UPDATED
******************************

BRAC / HVAR / KORCULO
When Yugoslavia broke up in 1941, the islands on the Dalmatian coast Croatia progressed Mussolini's Italy. However, when the fascist regime in Italy collapsed and Italian troops in 1943 left the Western Balkans, islands near Split dominated the Yugoslav partisans.
Area, abandoned by the Italian army, however, has conquered its ally - the fascist Germany.
On the series also came Islands - stamp area (CA) of Brac, Hvar and Korcula.
German 118. Division mountain shooters under the command of General Joseph Kubler moved to the peninsula of Peljesac, with headquarters in Janjine.
From there came the order to occupy the islands.
23 December 1943 738. Regiment conquered mountain shooters island of Korcula, January 12, 1944 was planted on the island of Brac, and 19 to 21 January 1944 conquered the island of Hvar. In the hands of the German islands they remained until September, 1944.
It is historically confirmed (Dr. Rommerskirchen) that German soldiers gave the order to manufacture prítla?ových stamps for the island of Brac in the Adriatic Sea in Dubrovnik printer and signs actually May 16, 1944 at the post office Nerižiš?e used.
The issue for the other two islands on the details of the missing.
Many German soldiers on the islands in June 1944 fell a substantial part of the marks of the island of Brac has been destroyed.
Croatian natural resources mark, occupation, condemn, while Italian sources (the islands for many years belonged to Italy as Brazza and Lesina Curzola) marks recorded and experts confirmed their authenticity.
Some data from the prestigious Italian CEI catalog (Catalog Enciclopedic Italiano) in 2005. Since then, prices have risen ...

Story from https://www.postoveznamky.sk/postage-stamp-territories-the-german-occupation-of-the-islands-of-brac-hvar-and-korcula

BRAC

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Quantities printed : 2+2 (400), 4+4 (400), 8+8 (500), 16+16 (400), 32+32 (500), 50+50 (500)

I never have seen the following stamps so i DO NOT own them.
The pictures are from the site mentioned above.


HVAR

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June 6, 1944 issued 2 series, with only 624 stamps.

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With imprint Red Cross (very very rare)


KORCULA

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December 24, 1943 issued 400 marks = 100 complete series of 4 stamps


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HockeyNut

10 Dec 2019
07:59:54am

re: interesting facts and explanations

LJADY (Near LENINGRAD)
December 1941 the district of Ljady ( Leningrad Front), issued 1Rfg "OSTLAND" stamps with an overprint, for use in a an area where normal postal service was not possible due to partisans.

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LUGA (Near LENINGRAD)
Soviet stamps overprinted with a new value for use in LUGA are also known to exist.
Serie was withdrawn from the counter.
(Leningrad Front 1941).

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HockeyNut

11 Dec 2019
12:25:47pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

FRANZENBAD

Due to a lack of Czechoslovakian postage, German stamps (MiNr 886, 888-893) were overprinted by the U.S. Army.
They were to be issued on 26 May 1945, but on that day, the Army called the post offices and directed that they were to be issued only to U.S. Army personnel, not to civilians.
This was honored at all post offices except Bad Wildstein, where the lack of telephone service delayed receipt of the directive.
Therefore, valid civilian cancels exist from Bad Wildstein on 26 & 27 May 1945.

The overprint is “value / U. S. ARMY / v C.S.R. / 18.IV.1945?.
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If have these stamps even used!!!!!!!!!!!!
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And certified........
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HockeyNut

11 Dec 2019
12:28:42pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

DENMARK

Danish Legion Feltpost Stamps: 1944 Famous Landmarks Views.
Complete perforated set of three:
Green +25 øre Roskilde Domkirke (cathedral),
Blue +50 øre Koldingshus (Kolding Castle),
Red +1 mk Kronborg castle (which also served as a lighthouse).
These fundraising stamps were issued in Denmark by Nazi German authorities and were intended to act like semi-postal stamps
(to benefit Danish Legion soldiers fighting on behalf of the Germans on the Eastern Front) on free military mail;
thus there was no base denomination, only the supplementary value.
Only known issued in a booklet (extremely rare) with all the stamps perforated on all four sides.
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Even used.........
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jmh67

12 Dec 2019
01:16:30am

re: interesting facts and explanations

"LUGA (Near LENINGRAD)
Soviet stamps overprinted with a new value for use in LUGA are also known to exist.
Serie was withdrawn from the counter.
(Leningrad Front 1941)."



It appears remarkably inefficient - and does not make sense to me at all - that whoever authorised these stamps had various values of stamps overprinted with 20 kopecks, while at the same time 20 kopeck stamps were overprinted with 60 kopecks. We'll never find out why, I suppose. It's a little thing compared to the wholesale waste, lunacy and misery of the war after all.

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gerom

12 Dec 2019
06:04:52am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you HockeyNut for the new post.
I found Luga and Ljady in Michel cat:
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I don't found Brac and US Army CSR.Where I find them?
I have a sheet of French Legion but I think it is a fake
Image Not Found

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HockeyNut

12 Dec 2019
07:45:54am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Hello Gerom,

In my Michel Special Catalog of 2017 you can find INSEL BRAC on page 1130.
(Spendenvignetten/Private ausgaben 1939/45)

FRANZENBAD is found at page 1134 of that same Catalog only no pictures of the stamps
(Spendenvignetten/Private ausgaben 1939/45)

At first glance your French Legion Bloc is OK.
Is on the back side a certify sign of any kind?

Here is mine bloc (Front / Black and the signs zoomed in)

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Certified by Dr Stein and Tust

Tust is a specialist on all stamps from France during WW2.

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HockeyNut

12 Dec 2019
08:01:34am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Gerom,

I think that the sheet is real but the cancelation stamp is false.

The cancel date says 06-11-1944

From the internet :

"The Liberation of France was the result of the Allied operations Overlord and Dragoon in the summer of 1944. Most of France was liberated by September 1944. Some of the heavily fortified French Atlantic coast submarine bases remained stay-behind "fortresses" until the German capitulation in May 1945."

But if there is a sign on the back, then it is a differnt story of course.

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HockeyNut

12 Dec 2019
08:37:49am

re: interesting facts and explanations

And because we are now in France :-)

Private donation vignettes issued by "Action Committee for the Legion of the Volontaires Francais contre le Bolchevisme" (LVF)
The vignettes did not have any postal meaning and could be used by the buyers as legion requestors on mailings for propaganda purposes.

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Flugpost vignetten without and with overprint.

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Legionars on the russian front

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St. Nazaire

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St. Nazaire

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gerom

12 Dec 2019
08:48:34am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Thanks HockeyNut
I found the 2 sets of stamps. In my catalog, the US Army are not listed (at page 1069 of my old cat.)
The "French Legion" can be identified by feeling the unevenness of the print (response received on a French site-"taille douce" print) ... which I did not notice. I concluded that it is false and unfortunately not signed.

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gerom

12 Dec 2019
09:06:28am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Another element for identification is the existence of lines in the mouth.
I noticed them in your sheet but unfortunately not mine.
You can confirm me?

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HockeyNut

12 Dec 2019
10:37:10am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Thanks for that tip Gerom.

I have looked with a magnify glass and yes, I can see cleary the lines.
So the printing is indeed much better.




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gerom

12 Dec 2019
11:56:03am

re: interesting facts and explanations

I am registered on a French site where everyone can make lists of desired stamps (catalog number and photos)
Can I use the images of your stamps?
George

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HockeyNut

12 Dec 2019
03:50:12pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Feel free to use them.

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HockeyNut

12 Dec 2019
04:10:18pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

SUDETEN DEUTSCHES NIEDERLAND

DO NOT CONFUSE THIS WITH THE NETHERLANDS.

This set of stamps was never officially issued.
In the lower part of the stamps you can read :
"Sudetendeutsches Niederlande befreit 22.9.1938 durch Adolf Hitler"
Translated :
"Lower Sudetenland liberated 22.9.1938 through Adolf Hitler."

The three stamps Sudetendeutsches Niederland appeared in September 1938. Three identical values in Czech currency, in the colours green, violet and orange, showing a map of the so-called Schluckenauer Zipfels - then Sudetendeutsches Niederland, today called Böhmisches Niederland - which is still valid today. The area in the north of the present-day Czech Republic was once relatively densely populated. The largest towns were Warnsdorf, Rumburg and Schluckenau. The Germany special catalog writes about it "Unissued stamps", which doesn't bother us collectors - they are originals from the year 1938. Interesting for us collectors and of course of historical value.

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HockeyNut

12 Dec 2019
04:22:37pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

KURLAND

In October 1944 Kurland (northern Latvia) became cut off from the rest of the eastern front and resupply was almost impossible. After a while postal material was running low and the stamps in every day use, could no longer be supplied. There was however a supply of the values seldom used, and these would replace the 6 Rfg stamps which had run out. ( 6 Rfg was the postcard rate). stamps of 5 Rfg, 10 Rfg and 20 Rfg were overprinted "KURLAND 6 (Rfg)". The 12 Rfg stamps used for 20g letters had also run out, and these were replaced by FELDPOST parcel stamps, overprinted "KURLAND 12 (Rfg)". All of these stamps were put on sale on the 20th April 1945.

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HockeyNut

12 Dec 2019
04:46:14pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

ALPEN VORLAND
Post-war Alpenvorland Fantasy Issue

A set of stamps similar to the Provinz Laibach issue, were printed after the war and sold to collectors as a "newly discovered" or planned occupation issue, this set although of interest, are of no value and are pure fantasy.

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and of course all stamps signed on the back.

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HockeyNut

12 Dec 2019
04:55:18pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Dear collectors,

I hope that my contribution to this board is appriciated.

The only thing I wanted to do is to give you collectors a little bit of history / background on the stamps issued in occupied countries by nazi-germany.

Hope you liked it so far.


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gerom

12 Dec 2019
06:05:41pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you very much HockeyNut.
For we ,collectors of Germany stamps(with Michel specialized cat.) your work is extraordinary.
For US collectors (with Scott cat,)these stamps don't exist(I think?)
For an example:
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The most valuable Official stamps of Germany Democratic Republic(Mi#29y-33y,granite paper,Wz.2/Wmk.297)don't have a number in Scott catalogue(2009 ed.)
I hope you continue your work with german stamps.

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mbo1142

I thought I was wrong once, but I was mistaken.
12 Dec 2019
09:17:25pm

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re: interesting facts and explanations

HockeyNut,

I for one really appreciate your insight and information. I have just started collecting in this area and have purchased the new 2 volume Michel German Specialized catalogs in English. I may be asking questions in the future.

Again, thanks for your input.

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HockeyNut

13 Dec 2019
09:07:21am

re: interesting facts and explanations

BELGIUM
During the period of Nazi occupation, some Belgians collaborated with their occupiers. There were pro-Nazi political organizations in both Flemish and Walloon communities before and during the war. The most significant were DeVlag, Verdinaso and Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (VNV) in Flanders as well as the Catholic Rex movement in Wallonia. Each of these movements had subtly different ideologies, their own paramilitary forces and printed their own newspapers. These organisations were also instrumental in encouraging Belgians to enlist into the German Army. Unlike the German-style National Socialist agenda of DeVlag, VNV appealed directly to a Flemish separatist agenda, though this message was never the main source of their popularity. Infighting between the groups, particularly VNV and DeVlag, was considerable.
Two separate units of the Waffen-SS, the Flemish Legion and the Walloon Legion, were recruited from Belgium during the occupation. Léon Degrelle, founder of the Rexist Party, served as commander of the Walloon Legion, which fought against the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe. A total of 15,000 Belgians in the "divisions" (neither ever greater than brigade strength) fought on the Eastern Front where the Walloon Legion was nearly annihilated in the Korsun–Cherkassy Pocket in 1944.

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Flemish legion serie 1

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Flemish legion serie 2 (It's an overprint of serie 1!)

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Flemish Legion serie 3

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Flemish Legion serie 4

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The famous LANGEMARK Stamp

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Flemish Legion serie 5

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Waloon Legion serie


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HockeyNut

13 Dec 2019
09:11:34am

re: interesting facts and explanations

NATIONALES INDIEN
The Indian Volunteer Legion of the Waffen-SS (German: Indische Freiwilligen Legion der Waffen-SS), was a military unit raised during the Second World War in Nazi Germany. Intended to serve as a liberation force for British-ruled India, it was made up of Indian prisoners of war and expatriates in Europe. Because of its origins in the Indian independence movement, it was known also as the "Tiger Legion", and the "Azad Hind Fauj". Initially raised as part of the German Army, it was officially assigned to the Waffen-SS from August 1944. Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose initiated the legion's formation, as part of his efforts to win India's independence by waging war against Britain, when he came to Berlin in 1941 seeking German aid. The initial recruits in 1941 were volunteers from the Indian students resident in Germany at the time, and a handful of the Indian prisoners of war who had been captured during the North Africa Campaign. It would later draw a larger number of Indian prisoners of war as volunteers.
The majority of the troops of the Indian Legion were only ever stationed in Europe in non-combat duties, in the Netherlands and in France until the Allied invasion. They saw action in the retreat from the Allied advance across France, fighting mostly against the French Resistance. One company was sent to Italy in 1944, where it saw action against British and Polish troops and undertook anti-partisan operations.

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Notice the expencive 1+2 Rupie Black stamps all three versions !!!

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HockeyNut

13 Dec 2019
09:26:21am

re: interesting facts and explanations

THE NETHERLANDS
In late 1940, Germany began recruiting volunteers in the Low Countries to serve in a primarily Dutch unit within the SS. In July 1941, the SS Volunteer Unit Niederlande (later renamed the SS Volunteer Legion Niederlande) was formed.
In November 1941, the Legion was ordered to the Eastern Front near Leningrad. Between January 1942 and April 1943, the Legion participated in the Siege of Leningrad, as well as the First and Second Battles of Ladoga.
In mid-1943, the Legion was reformed as a Panzer Grenadier Brigade and sent to Yugoslavia. It remained there until Christmas 1943, when it returned to the Army Group North on the Eastern Front.
Over the next year and a half, the Legion would conduct a fighting retreat as part of Army Group North, until finally trapped in the Courland Pocket. In January 1945, the Legion became one of the few units to be evacuated from the Pocket when it was transported by sea back to Germany.
The Legion was split into two Kampfgruppes, and once again assumed a position on the line facing the Red Army. In the final days of WWII, the de Ruyter Kampfgruppe dashed west to surrender to the American Army, while the General Seyffardt Kampfgruppe was destroyed at the Battle of Halbe.
The survivors of the Legion were eventually tried in the Netherlands after the war, with many receiving death sentences for their participation.

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HockeyNut

13 Dec 2019
10:03:21am

re: interesting facts and explanations

SARNY (Ukraine)
The city was captured by Nazi Germany on July 8, 1941, following the repudiation by Germany of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact and the German attack on Russia on June 22, 1941.
At the time, Sarny had a Jewish population of approximately 5,000 persons. While Russian troops retreated, Ukrainian nationalists did not retreat with the Russian forces, but instead saw an opportunity to support the independence of Ukraine through alliances with the Nazis.
Subsequent to the German occupation, the Nazis commandeered Jews of Sarny as forced labour. In addition, the Jewish population was forced to turn over most of its assets to the Nazis, with orders largely enforced by Ukrainian police
In April 1942, a ghetto was established in Sarny, into which were forced the Jews from Sarny and the surrounding towns
In August 1942, Sarny was the scene of what came to be known as the Sarny Massacre. Over two days, on August 27–28, 1942, between 14,000 and 18,000 people, mostly Jews from Sarny and surrounding towns, including an estimated 100 Roma, were systematically executed in the ravines on the outskirts of the town, where pits had been prepared. The executions were carried out by German troops and Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, assisted by some 200 members of The city was captured by Nazi Germany on July 8, 1941, following the repudiation by Germany of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact and the German attack on Russia on June 22, 1941.

At the time, Sarny had a Jewish population of approximately 5,000 persons. While Russian troops retreated, Ukrainian nationalists did not retreat with the Russian forces, but instead saw an opportunity to support the independence of Ukraine through alliances with the Nazis.

Subsequent to the German occupation, the Nazis commandeered Jews of Sarny as forced labour. In addition, the Jewish population was forced to turn over most of its assets to the Nazis, with orders largely enforced by Ukrainian police.

In April 1942, a ghetto was established in Sarny, into which were forced the Jews from Sarny and the surrounding towns.

In August 1942, Sarny was the scene of what came to be known as the Sarny Massacre. Over two days, on August 27–28, 1942, between 14,000 and 18,000 people, mostly Jews from Sarny and surrounding towns, including an estimated 100 Roma, were systematically executed in the ravines on the outskirts of the town, where pits had been prepared. The executions were carried out by German troops and Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, assisted by some 200 members of Organization Todt. A memorial book of the history of the Jewish community in Sarny was published in 1961, containing first person accounts by community survivors.

During the Volhynian Genocide, commencing in 1943, Sarny was a shelter for ethnic Polish population of Volhynian countryside, massacred by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. In May 1943, German authorities created a Polish police unit, which defended the town from the Ukrainians. In 1944, most Poles were transported either to the General Government, or to the Third Reich as OST-Arbeiters. A memorial book of the history of the Jewish community in Sarny was published in 1961, containing first person accounts by community survivors.
During the Volhynian Genocide, commencing in 1943, Sarny was a shelter for ethnic Polish population of Volhynian countryside, massacred by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. In May 1943, German authorities created a Polish police unit, which defended the town from the Ukrainians. In 1944, most Poles were transported either to the General Government, or to the Third Reich as OST-Arbeiters.

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These stamps are very complex to determine. (I think that is the right term to use)





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HockeyNut

13 Dec 2019
10:18:41am

re: interesting facts and explanations

WOSNESSENSK (Ukraine)
(Be aware that the germans speak about WOSNESSENSK instead of VOSNESSENSK)
The south Ukrainian city of Vosnessensk is located on the left bank of the southern bug at the confluence with the Mertwowid in the general district Nikolayev.
The district formed on 15-11-1941 included the Arbusinka Bratskoje, Jelanez and Vosnessensk rayons.

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HockeyNut

13 Dec 2019
01:39:40pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Especially for Gerom :

DDR DIENSTMARKEN FÜR VERWALTUNGSPOST (DDR official stamps for administrative mail)

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(difference between OFFSETDRUCK (Offset) and BUCHDRUCK (typhography) )

That one is easy....

But now :
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Zirkelknopf geschlossen / Circle button closed
Zirkelknopf offen / Cicle button open
This is seen just under the hammer.
Hammerschatten links / The shadow of the hammer on the left

That is not difficult if you know where to look......

And then you have the three different watermarks as shown in the drawing

And you have 2 types of papier :
gewöhnliches papier / ordinary paper
gestrichenes papier / coated paper
WHO KNOWS THE DIFFERENCE?

And at last we have two different types :
I hohe smalle buchstaben / high small letters
II flache breite buchstaben / flat wide letters

That is very difficult for a starting philatelist...

P.S>
Forgot to tell that there are Nachdrucke/Neudrucke too (REPRINTS !)

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gerom

13 Dec 2019
02:27:12pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Hello HockeyNut
The stamps I posted aren't Mi#29y-33y (my example have in commun just the granite paper and type II design),everyone see the different perforation and they have watermark WZ.3.
But if you have the Scott cat.write me the no.I don't found them.
In my old catalog the two types of design are:

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For me the coated paper..glossy in the oblic light.It's correct?

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gerom

13 Dec 2019
02:52:29pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

The third type paper for DDR oficial stamps is gefasertes = granite paper:


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mbo1142

I thought I was wrong once, but I was mistaken.
13 Dec 2019
02:58:18pm

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re: interesting facts and explanations

Gerom,

If your stamps are on granite paper and are the redrawn type II, then they are Scott #O37, O38, O39 and O42. Found in Official Section of DDR right after Air Post stamps.

Mel

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gerom

13 Dec 2019
03:37:15pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you Mel,
With my message I would just to say that Mi#29y-33y (granite paper,perf.13 1/2 x 12,typografied,wmk.297)don't have a no.in cat.Scott:

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And if you see the cotes....
Scott#O37-O42 have a different watermarked wmk.313)

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mbo1142

I thought I was wrong once, but I was mistaken.
13 Dec 2019
05:58:57pm

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re: interesting facts and explanations

Gerom,

After further reading of my Scotts, it indicates that #O18,(5pf) O19,(10pf) O21,(15pf) and O25,(40pf) were printed on granite paper in 1956. That would make the right perf and watermark for your stamps and the Scott number would be as indicated.

Mel

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gerom

14 Dec 2019
02:51:33am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you HockeyNut for the new post.
Of course, I consulted the Michel catalog to identify the postage stamps.
I do not know German and it is very difficult to understand the explanations in the catalog.
I have a doubt about the currencies used in Ukraine: pfennig, rubel, kopeken and karbowanez.
I did not find in the catalog at the beginning of Ukraine the specifications that appear in the other occupied countries (eg Russia - 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken = 10 pfennig)
What is the parity for these values that appear on the stamps?

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nigelc

14 Dec 2019
05:31:25am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Hi gerom,

From Wikipedia:

"During the Nazi occupation of Ukraine in World War II, the German occupying government (Reichskommissariat Ukraine) issued banknotes denominated in karbovanets (karbowanez in German).

The karbovanets replaced the Soviet ruble at par and was in circulation between 1942 and 1945.

It was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 10 karbovantsiv = 1 Reichsmark."

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HockeyNut

14 Dec 2019
07:23:05am

re: interesting facts and explanations

ESTONIA
On June 22, 1941, the German Wehrmacht in Hitler's Germany began the attack on the Soviet Union. In August 1941, Estonia was occupied by German troops and from then on Estonia was under a German military administration. The military administration allowed the former Estonian regional post to resume service fairly quickly. In July and August 1944, the Red Army made major breakthroughs in many places as part of Operation Bagration. And in the first half of October 1944, the Wehrmacht troops withdrew from Estonia. The Wehrmacht thus avoided encircling its troops in Estonia. Estonia itself fell under the Soviet occupation.
There were the following regulations regarding the postage of stamps in Estonia:
Currency: 1 ruble = 100 kopecks = 10 pfennigs

Transition notes were postage stamps of the Hindenburg and Hitler permanent series without overprints valid for franking. The stamp issue of Dorpat MiNr. 1-9 could be used in the later Ostland area. The MiNr. 4-9 could also be used in international mail in addition to its expenditure until December 31, 1942.
The first issue for the whole of Estonia were three stamps which came on sale 7th August 1941, with both the Estonian and German spelling of Estonia and emblems on the design.

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An interesting set was put on sale in September 41, showing views of Estonia, issued to raise funds for Estonia´s rebuilding programme, they remained valid until March 1942 and could be mixed with the German "OSTLAND" issue.

Local editions exists from the following cities :
Elwa, Hummuli, Moiseküll, Nüggen, Odenpäh, Pernau, Puka, Wesenberg

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Remark :
The stamps from the Second World War occupation for Estonia number 1-9 are in price quite available. Some of the local issues in Estonia during the German occupation, depending on the issue, can be a challenge for the stamp collector. The stamps from Estonia have a variety of very valuable prices. The local editions with their hand stamp overprints are a source of popular and valuable printing errors. The short and postage periods from 7.8-1941 till 19.8.1941 and from 29.9-1941 till 30.11.1941 with different value levels are a treasure trove for real rarities. Stamps from Estonia during the German occupation are still very popular and are not cheap to buy in good condition.

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HockeyNut

14 Dec 2019
07:31:11am

re: interesting facts and explanations

LATVIA
Latvia issued Soviet stamps with the overprint "LATVIJA", with the date of liberation 1st July 1941, this was a set of six stamps which came on sale on the 17th July 1941 onwards. The issue was valid for the whole of Latvia, there being no local town issues.
After that the stamps for the Reichskommissariat Ostland and regular German stamps came into use, in October 1941.

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LATVIAN LEGION STAMPS
This is a picture taken from the internet showing the proofs for a Latvian Legion issues, which may never have been printed.
So I do not own this set myself :-(

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HockeyNut

14 Dec 2019
07:38:58am

re: interesting facts and explanations

LITHUANIA
On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Following the German occupation, Soviet stamps were overprinted "Nepriklausoma Lietuva 1941-VI-23" (Independent Lithuania 1941-VI-23) in 1941. Lithuania became part of the Reichskommissariat Ostland, the German occupation administration. Stamps were issued for use in the Reichskommissariat Ostland by overprinting "Ostland" on stamps of Germany.

The southern area of the country issued its own stamps on 16th July 1941 with the overprint "VILNUS". Some other towns issed their own stamps with their town names, but in some cases only numbered a few dozen stamps, so were not widely used.

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Local editions exists from the following cities :
Alsedschen, Ponewesch, Rossingen, Rakischki, Telschen, Wilkomir, Zargrad, Anyksciai

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Ponewesch

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Rakischki

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Wilkomir

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Telschen

All with certificates of course.........

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HockeyNut

14 Dec 2019
07:48:56am

re: interesting facts and explanations

ALBANIA
The Germans occupied Albania on the 10th September 1943 and an Albania collaborational government was formed on the 14th September 1943. The German forces withdrew from Albania on 29th November 1944.

The first issue of postage stamps for Albania consisted of former Italian occupation stamps with a "14 Shtator 1943" overprint ( 14th September 1943).

Nine other stamps were overprinted, as were a series of five Postage Due
stamps which although they were ready for use, they never reached the
post offices, however a few have reached post-war collectors and they command high prices.
22nd September 1944 The second ( and last ) Albanian issue, printed in Vienna, were charity stamps "Refugees and air raid damage" showing one of the set, all the set were of the same design, just different values and colours.

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HockeyNut

14 Dec 2019
08:07:55am

re: interesting facts and explanations

MACEDONIA
In September 1944 the Bulgarian surrender caused a political vacuum in Macedonia, which the Germans filled with a local puppet government. The German postal authorities took over the post in Macedonia. The post continued to use postage stamps of Bulgaria until the overprinted set were available. Macedonia had been occupied by Bulgaria since 1941.

By the time the stamps were issued on the 28th October 1944, more than half of the country had been overrun by the Soviets and partisans. The local government in Macedonia could only rule so long as the Germans remained in the country. The Germans were fighting a withdrawal northwards and the last of the troops left Macedonia on the 13th November 1944.

That is to say the local occupation stamps were on sale, and valid, for only two weeks! of the local people wished to be caught with the stamps when the Soviets marched in and as a result some 98% of those stamps sold were sold to Wehrmacht troops passing through.

The set of eight stamps with the Macedonia Overprint
The date on the overprint is not the date of issue, but the date that the local government was set up by the German authorities. The original stamps are Bulgarian, with the word "MACEDONIA" within the overprint.
There are many variations or mistakes within the overprint, for example upside down or a full stop missing etc.

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HockeyNut

14 Dec 2019
08:10:37am

re: interesting facts and explanations

ZANTE
The Ionian Islands were occupied by Italy in 1941 and issued Italian stamps with the overprint "Isole Ionie". After the fall of Italy in September 1943 all of the Ionian Islands were authorised to use Greek stamps and the Italian stamps were no longer valid.
There was a shortage of stamps and it would take a while for Greek stamps to reach the island. The Wehrmacht Kommandant Hauptmann Lüth, together with the islands postal authorities, gave the order for Italian stamps (which were already overprinted with "Isole Ionie") to be given a further Greek overprint.
The stamps went on sale on the 22nd October 1943, mostly with a black overprint, but some were in a red overprint. Three stamps in total, 25 Cent, a 50 Cent and a 50 Cent Airmail stamp. A 10 Cent stamp was overprinted, but never made it to the counter before the stamps became invalid.
Very few stamps were known used, most of those known on cover were sent to a bank in Athens. The stamps were withdrawn on the 29th October 1943 and the hand dies containing the overprint was ordered destroyed. The stamps had been in use for only seven days!
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gerom

14 Dec 2019
08:27:26am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Hi Nigelc,
I searched for Michel for 1 hour trying to translate when google search gives the answer in 1 second.
Thank you

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HockeyNut

14 Dec 2019
08:33:06am

re: interesting facts and explanations

ZARA
In September 1943 the Italian surrender caused a political vacuum in the Balkan Peninsula, which the Germans filled. The German postal authorities took over the post in Albania, Montenegro, Kotor, Macedonia, Laibach (Ljubijana), Zante and Zara.

Zara was an Italian enclave on the Dalmation coast of former Yugoslavia. It had previously been part of the Austrian Empire, but had been taken over by Italy in 1919 as a naval base and the postal service became part of the Italian postal authorities using Italian stamps.

After the fall of Italy the Germans occupied Zara and placed the postal services under German control. A few weeks later Italian stamps were overprinted with "Deutsche Besetzung Zara" (German Occupation Zara).

Almost a million stamps were overprinted, far too many for the local population. However, a number of the stamps found their way to German stamp collectors. This may have been the German postal authorities making some money late in the war? Who knows.

The lower values were overprinted between 50,000 and 100,000 times, some of the higher values, however, were very low, with only 47 or 32 examples known, which is less than a complete sheet of postage stamps!

The stamps were issued on the 5th October 1943 ( a second issue was placed on sale on the 6th November 1943) and on the town was destroyed during a heavy bombing raid on the 16th December 1943. Two weeks later the Germans ordered the evacuation of Zara, with effect from the 31st December 1943. Any civilians found in the ruins after that date were to be shot as looters.

Well here is my part of Zara stamps :

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HockeyNut

14 Dec 2019
12:26:15pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

During the various postings I saw a remark about the postage costs within the different occupied countries.

Hereby an overview:

Sudetenland : The domestic fees of the German Reich applied, converted to a currency ratio of 10: 1. 1 Kc = 100 Heller = 10 Pfg
Albania : 1 Frank = 100 Qind
Belgium : 1 Frank = 100 Centimes
Bohemia and Moravia : 1 Koruna (= czech crown) = 100 Heller
Brac : 1 (Croatian) Kuna = 100 Lipa
Denmark : 1 Krone = 100 Ore
Alsace : The postal charges of Alsace corresponded to the German Empire. 1 Mark = 100 Pfg
Estonia : 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken = 10 Pfg
France : 1 Franc = 100 Centimes
General government : 1 Zloty = 100 Groschen = 50 Pfg
Channel Islands : 1 Shilling = 12 Pence
Kotor : 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi (and from september 1944 1 Reichsmark = 100 Pfg)
Kurland : 1 Reichsmark = 100 Pfg
Ljubljana (Laibach): 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi
Latvia : 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken
Lithuania : 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken
Lotharingen : The postal charges of Lotharingen corresponded to the German Empire. 1 Mark = 100 Pfg
Luxemburg : The postal charges of Luxemburg corresponded to the German Empire. 1 Mark = 100 Pfg
Montenegro : 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi ( and from 1944 1 Reichsmark = 100 Pfg)
Ostland (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and part of Belarus) :
From the day of the march into Ostland until the issue of the Ostland stamps on 4-11-1941, all german postage stamps were valid as franking.
1 Reichsmark = 100 Pfg
Russia : 1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken = 10 Pfg
Ljady : The stamps of ljady served to cover the costs of the messenger mail (by boat) of the german district command in the guerrilla district
1 Rubel = 100 Kopeken = 10 Pfg
Serbia : 1 Dinar = 100 Para
Ukraine : Until the Ukraine stamps were issued on 14-11-1941, all German postage stamps were valid for postage. 1 Mark = 100 Pfg
After that date, the rubel was used in some districts (1 rubel = 100 Kopeken)
Zante (Zakynthos) : 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi = 8 Drachmen
Zara : 1 Lire = 100 Centesimi

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HockeyNut

15 Dec 2019
10:39:17am

re: interesting facts and explanations

UKRAINE

It took me a while to translate but here it is.

Special editions of the German civil administration before the opening of the official mail.
In the remote area commissariats of Alexanderstadt, Sarny and Vosnessensk there was a ukrainian post office until the german official mail was set up.
It was launched and monitored by the German civil administration, existed for several months and provided the entire business and civilian postal and telegraph operations.
Cancellation partly with pen stroke, partly with existing or newly procured postmarks.

Gebiet Alexanderstadt:
Expression B. ALEX. (Abbreviation for Bolschaja ALEXandrowka).
August 16, 1941 is the date of the conquest of the capital Nikolayev.
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nr 1 on letter
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nr 4 II
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nr 5 III
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nr 7 III
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nr 10 III

Gebiet Sarny:
Control signs were stuck to the postal items to ensure that the prescribed cash franking was invoiced.
After the postal service was taken over by the German official mail on 5-12-1941, these control marks became invalid.
For examples see previous posts.....

Gebiet Wosnessensk :
For examples see previous posts.....

"Hilfspostausgaben" of the German civil administration after deducting the official mail.
After the step-by-step withdrawal of the German service post, which took place at the same time as the troops were returning, the area commissioners still in charge took over the post connection to the next immediate German service post offices.
The special fee charged for this (Koerier fee and postal fee) was acknowledged by a special stamp which was canceled by the dateless official seal of the respective area commissioner. The postage cleared in this way was then franked at the competent post office with Hitler stamps with the imprint "Ukraine" in accordance with the postal fee and canceled with a postmark.

South Ukraine :
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North Ukraine :
Luboml
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Wladimir-Wolynsk
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Gorochow :
I do not own this stamp but the internet gives help here....
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Gorochow
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Luboml
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Wladimir-Wolynsk
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HockeyNut

15 Dec 2019
12:50:51pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Alsace / Elsass

After the ceasefire with France, the French stamps remained valid until 17-08-1940.
Up to that day, mixed frankings with numbers 1 to 16 were also possible.
From 15-07-1941 the stamps of the german empire, lorraine and luxembourg were as valid as the stamps of Alsace in the old empire, Lorraine and Luxembourg.
From the beginning, the German official mail only used German stamps without overprints.

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HockeyNut

15 Dec 2019
12:52:23pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Lorraine / Lothringen

After the ceasefire with France, the French stamps remained valid until 25-08-1940.
Up to that day, mixed frankings with numbers 1 to 16 were also possible.
From 01-04-1941, the stamps of the German Empire, Alsace and Luxembourg were also valid.

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HockeyNut

15 Dec 2019
12:54:09pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Luxembourg

The stamps of the grand duchy lost their validity on 30-09-1940, but could still be applied until 02-10-1940.
Up to that day, mixed frankings with numbers 1 to 16 were also possible.
From 01-04-1941, the stamps of the German Empire, Alsace and Lorraine were also valid.

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15 Dec 2019
04:38:43pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

KOTOR

Kotor was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918 and was annexed to Yugoslavia after the end of the war in 1918.
In April 1941 Kotor, under the occupation of Yugoslavia, fell under the Italian occupation and Italian stamps were used.
The post office set up for the Boka Kotorska area (Bay of Cattaro) set up its own regional post office under the supervision of the German military administration.
Before issuing their own stamps, stamps 1 to 9 from Montenegro, regional mail under German occupation, and initially Italian postage stamps without imprint were in use.

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HockeyNut

15 Dec 2019
04:40:46pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

MONTENEGRO

In September 1943, the German military administration replaced the previous Italian administration (Governatorato del Montenegro).
The field administration of the German administration was the field command 1040, which soon had the official name of field command Montenegro.
The area of Kotor (Cattaro) received its own administration and post.
From 10-11-1943 a civil administration was established under a "National Administrative Committee".

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HockeyNut

16 Dec 2019
12:14:48pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

DEAR READERS

I HAVE UPDATED A PREVIOUS POST ABOUT BRAC.
I believe it was post number 9.


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HockeyNut

16 Dec 2019
12:23:30pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

KOTOR

Kotor was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918 and was annexed to Yugoslavia after the end of the war in 1918.
In April 1941 Kotor, under the occupation of Yugoslavia, fell under the Italian occupation and Italian stamps were used.
The post office set up for the Boka Kotorska area (Bay of Cattaro) set up its own regional post office under the supervision of the German military administration.
Before issuing their own stamps, stamps 1 to 9 from Montenegro, regional mail under German occupation, and initially Italian postage stamps without imprint were in use.

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ArtStamp

16 Dec 2019
06:03:36pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

This thread is awesome! I congratulate Henry Van Berkel for such an exhaustive research!

I do not collect anything related to occupation of territories by foreign powers. However, I find this thread absolutely interesting (Interesting Facts and Explanations) and riveting. The author should present his findings in both History 101: WWII, or Graduate course at any college or university. It’s scope is vast, and compelling.

First of all, when talking or studying any foreign occupation one obtains only a general sense of that life changing event for countless human beings. However, showing ephemera (as postage stamps are) one is thrown into the daily lives of individuals, nations and territories that suffered the outrages of that occupation. This manner of presenting those facts is not only interesting, it is downright an exceptional example of Living History.

Seeing World War II today from the perspective of a topical collector of postage stamps of Territorial Occupation by Foreign Powers during World War II brings home the immensity of that event which affected millions of people in so many places.

I am reminded of Prof. David Scott’s analysis of postage stamps as “places of memory.” He analyzes these small pieces of paper, supposedly insignificant as most ephemera is, from the point of view of historian Pierre Nora, who as a modern historian “attempt(s) to inventory and then analyze the places in which traces of national memory might be still incarnated.” (Scott: The semiotics of the lieu de memoire. The postage stamp as a site of cultural memory. Semiotica 142 (2002), p. 107.) Although Professors Scott’s and Nora’s work is focused on sites considered important for the patrimony of a nation--in this specific case, the French nation’s monuments, art, and architecture featured on her postage stamps--one can see in the stamps that illustrate this thread, and the explanations—Interesting Facts and Explanations—an excellent example of how postage stamps are more than mere pieces of papers one can affix to an envelope. In this case specifically these tiny pieces of paper convey very important meaning for both the Occupying Forces and the Subjugated Peoples.

The author of the thread should be congratulated. Kudos, Henry.



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HockeyNut

17 Dec 2019
08:05:51am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Thank you Artstamp for all that credit.

I started this because many people here save German stamps but cannot read the German language or only poorly. (No offence!)
Most of what I have written comes from the Michel catalog or some other collectors, I only translated and illustrated it with stamps from my own collection.
With the stamps that I do not have, I have mentioned that too.
I started collecting stamps when I was 14. I read a lot about stamps and there history.
So.........

For this thread I will add 4 more issues. (SERBIEN, LAIBACH, GUERNSEY and JERSEY)

For the next thread I will pay attention to the subject FELDPOST of the germans during WW2.

Bless you all and for now MERRY CHRISTMAS.

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HockeyNut

17 Dec 2019
09:06:17am

re: interesting facts and explanations

GUERNSEY
In 1940 the German authorities were content to allow the further use of British stamps, but with the post offices on the Channel Islands now cut off from the British mainland, it was only a question of time before supplies of stamps ran low.
The most common stamp in use was the 1 penny stamp and it was this one that ran out first.
The authorities issued permission for twopenny stamps to be used cut in half, or in philatelic terms, bicected.
This was authorized originally for Guernsey only, but bicects were soon seen in Jersey as well.
Much more rare are the King George V and the King Edward VIII stamps which were also bisected, these come from stamp collectors resident on the Islands during the occupation.
Of course the bisects were nothing more than short term until new stamps could be issued.
Guernsey included the islands of Alderney, Herm, Jethou and Sark.
The following issue was designed by E.W.Vaudin and printed by the "Guernsey Press Co. Ltd".
During this time existing British stamps continued in use and are known mixed on covers.
In 1942 a paper shortage meant that some stamps were printed blue French bank note paper normally used in printing money (French watermarked).

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JERSEY
Jersey included the islands of Les Dirouilles, Les Ecrehous and Les Minquiers.
The first issue was designed by N.V.L.Rybot and printed by the Jersey Evening Post.

The Jersey Issues secret.
The stamp designer wanted to hit back at the occupation and this little secret came out after the war......
In the design of both Jersey stamps there is an "A" in each corner, small and difficult to see, but it is there.
AAAA = Ad Avernum Atrox Adolphe, or if you want it in plain English, "To the Devil with Hitler".
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In June 1943 it was decided to print a scenic set of six stamps for Jersey, they were designed by E.Blampied and printed by H.Cortot.
The stamps were printed by the French State Printing Works in Paris and shipped back to the island.

All of the occupation issues for both Guernsey and Jersey remained in use after the war and were valid until 13th April 1946.

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HockeyNut

17 Dec 2019
09:13:43am

re: interesting facts and explanations

LAIBACH
The Province of Ljubljana (Italian: Provincia di Lubiana, Slovene: Ljubljanska pokrajina, German: Provinz Laibach) was the central-southern area of Slovenia.
In 1941, it was annexed by Fascist Italy, and after 1943 occupied by Nazi Germany.
Created on May 3, 1941, it was abolished on May 9, 1945, when the Slovene Partisans and partisans from other parts of Yugoslavia liberated it from the Nazi Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral.
Its administrative centre was Ljubljana.
During World War II, Slovenia was in a unique situation.
While Greece shared its experience of being trisected, Slovenia was the only country that experienced a further step—absorption and annexation into neighboring Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Hungary.
After Yugoslavia was invaded by Axis Powers on 6 April 1941, Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed northern Slovenia.
The ethnic German Gottscheers were moved out of the province because Hitler opposed having them in the Italian occupation zone.

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Do not confuse these stamps with those of ALPEN VORLAND !!!
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NOT ISSUED !
On cardboard paper !!!




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HockeyNut

17 Dec 2019
09:17:12am

re: interesting facts and explanations

SERBIEN
The postal services in Serbia came under the full control of the German military occupational forces.
It should be noted that Croatia is not listed in the German catalogues because Croatia had the status of an independant country which had placed itself under German protection.
Serbia was occupied during the invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece in April 1941.
The first occupation stamps and postcards were Yugoslavian pre-war issues which had been overprinted SERBIEN which was the countries name in German and then from the end of 1941 most issues were new designs with the countries name in Serbian.
In the begining postal activity was wide spread, but within a few months partisan warfare made postal deliveries uncertain at best.
Postal services were limited to the "Volksdeutsche" area of the Banat (on the border with Hungary), Belgrade and some of the larger towns along the German supply routes to Greece.
Stamps overprinted "BANAT" are not official overprints.

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Set 1

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Set 2

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Set 3, 4 and 5

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HockeyNut

17 Dec 2019
01:49:05pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

There are a lot of stamp from Serbian. So here is part II

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Souvenier sheets 1 and 2

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Now these series are all different!!!!
Thought you have seen it by now? Wrong !

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All these are different too......
Fun for the philatelist...???....

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HockeyNut

17 Dec 2019
01:52:49pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Well and there is more from Serbia :

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and 2 souvenir sheets more

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HockeyNut

17 Dec 2019
01:55:59pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

We are not there yet..............

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And finally the last one.

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Bobstamp

17 Dec 2019
07:53:06pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

Further to HockeyNut's post about the German occupation of the the Channel Islands, StampoRama members might be interested in my extensive web page, The Channel Islands at War.

Bob

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ArtStamp

20 Dec 2019
10:58:44am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Bob, your Channel Islands at War is excellent. I had read it a while back.
Of interest is John Nettles book, Jewels and Jack Boots. The documentary was also extremely informative. However, I failed to see any mention of the Postal System or postage stamps during the occupation.
Keep up the good work.
I see that HockeyNut has included a section on the Channel Islands postage stamps during the Nazi occupation.

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HockeyNut

20 Dec 2019
12:13:22pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

"Further to HockeyNut's post about the German occupation of the the Channel Islands, StampoRama members might be interested in my extensive web page, The Channel Islands at War.

Bob"



Thanks Bob.

It is all about reading nowadays.

knowledge
knowledge
knowledge
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HockeyNut

30 Dec 2019
11:10:26am

re: interesting facts and explanations

"'
Hard to believe that, in the midst of a 60-day street-by-street battle, some dude at the local post office decided that what they really needed was their own postage to - what - stiffen their resolve?

Next thing, someone will post the Viet Cong's Danang local overprints of 1968.

Barricade building, food smuggling, guard duty ... so many things to do in a desperate battle, and some postal clerk decided that what they really need is their own postage?

Cheers,

/s/ ikeyPikey"



Well maybe hard to believe but I recently came across a website that explaines a lot of what you can not believe.

http://www.exponet.info/exhibit.php?exhibit_ID=651&lng=DE

I took a picture of a part of page 34 and the translation follows this.

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Warsaw Uprising - 1944

During the Warsaw Uprising (1-8-1944 to 2-10-1944), a postal delivery service was set up in the liberated parts of Warsaw. The transport was mainly carried out by Boy Scouts - POCZTA HACERSKA - (hence the name Boy Scout Post). The mail was transported free of charge, and the sender contributed to the "postage" by donating food and clothing.
In 1966 Mr. .......


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HockeyNut

30 Dec 2019
11:17:55am

re: interesting facts and explanations

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HockeyNut

31 Dec 2019
08:00:37am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Found a Polish stamp from 1984 taken from an original photo of that time to honor those BOYSCOUTS.

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I rest my case...

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HockeyNut

01 Jan 2020
08:41:09am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Now something else.

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The Anschluss souvenir card above incorporates a Hitler stamp of 1937

Ever wondered how the postal system went in Austria after "der Anschluss" in 1938?
I found a very interesting site that gives an insight into it.
Moreover, it is written in the English language.
(to make it easier for you, I think Happy )
Here it is :

http://www.austrianphilately.com/anschlus/index.htm

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HockeyNut

01 Jan 2020
09:07:14am

re: interesting facts and explanations

MEMELLAND

On December 11, 1938, a pro-Nazi unit list received 87.2% of the vote, a situation similar to the Sudetenland, the free city of Danzig and the Belgian East Cantons, which were all border areas outside Germany with a German majority where Nazi-inspired Front Parties ( Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront, Heimattreue Front) the traditional and democratic pro-German parties. Although German speakers were only half the population in Memelland, the desire to join the German Empire was also supported by many bilingual Memelland people, dissatisfied with the authoritarian Lithuanian policy.

On March 22, 1939, the area became German again when Lithuania handed it over to Nazi Germany "voluntarily" after a Berlin ultimatum, hoping for German support for the claims to the city of Vilnius, now the capital of Lithuania but then Polish under the name Wilna. After the transfer to Germany, 21,000 residents fled from Memelland to Lithuania: Half of them were Lithuanians who had come to live there since 1919 and, moreover, 9,000 Jews and other German emigrants who had fled Nazi terror.

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Local issue : Deutsche Verwaltung from 22-03-1939 vor Memelland

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HockeyNut

01 Jan 2020
10:18:15am

re: interesting facts and explanations

Sudetenland
Local official editions; Original stamps from Czechoslovakia with overprints
The area along the Sudetes belonged to Austria as the outskirts of Bohemia before it merged with Czechoslovakia in 1918. The Munich Agreement of 29 and 30 September 1938 made the approval of the annexation of the Sudetenland to Germany poor. In the course of the Sudeten crisis, Czech troops cleared some German-speaking areas even before the Munich Agreement was signed. As a result, the Sudeten German Party began to issue its own stamps in the Asch and Rumburg areas from 21 September 1938.

On October 1, 1938, the Sudetenland was ceded from Czechoslovakia to the German Empire. Until the arrival of the stocks of German stamps, some of the stamps of Czechoslovakia were still used unchanged, some of them were printed and sold at the post office counters. The use of the stamps of Czechoslovakia without and with imprint ended after Circular decree of the OPD Dresden no later than October 20, 1938. After that only stamps of the German Post were valid for postage.

There are only seven issues authorized by the Sudeten German Party. The overprints were made in great haste, but this was done very carefully. However, any special features that occur, such as reversed printing colors or types, upside down or wrong printing are very rare.

The stamps overprinted in many other cities and towns apart from the editions cataloged here only have so-called "style tenderman remembrance overprints" and are not to be regarded as post office editions. Special "exemptions" cancellations were also used.

devaluations
The following stamp types were used in the transition period:
• unchanged postmark of Czechoslovakia,
• stamp with removed Czech inscription,
• old Austrian postmarks,
• temporary stamp (mostly single-line place name),
• Special stamps (mostly rubber stamps), at least always with the additions; they were drawn in by the Reichspanel in early November 1938.

Postage and newspaper stamps were used as ordinary postage stamps.

Really used and postage paid postage receipts are very rare (-, -) in the expenditure of the Sudetenland. With the exception of Rumburg, the letter prices apply to collector's or typesetting letters or for over-franked documents.

There are counterfeit and stamp counterfeits of all issues. (BPP) check of all expensive brands is strongly recommended!

postal charges
The domestic fees of the German Reich applied, converted according to the currency ratio 10: 1 (10 H = 1 Pf, 1 Kc until 10.10.1! 1: 111 10 Pf), then 12 Pf.


Asch
Asch is located in the so-called "Ascher Zipfel" between the Fichtel and Erz Mountains, just a few kilometers from the Bavarian Border.
Already on September 21, 1938 the Czech organs had left the area and the Sudeten German party took over the state


Karlsbad
Karlsbad is located between the Kaiserwald and Duppauer Gebirge at the mouth of the Tepl in the Eger and was the most important spa in the Egerland
Since after the first issue of the own stamps on October 1, 1938, the post office was again in the possession of approx. 1:30 p.m. to October 3, 1938, initial cancellations (EST) from October 1st. very sought after (not all brands were available on October 1st).


Konstantinbad
The health resort Konstantinsbad is located in the West Bohemian Bäden triangle in the middle of forests around Pilsen
The postal administration also organized the postal system for the towns of Girsch, Neumarkt, Plau (with Marienbad), Tschihana, Weseritz and Zebau.


Niklasdorf
Niklasdorf is located in Moravian-Silesia only about 10 km from the former German border, and was highly competitive during the Sudeten crisis.
From 22-09-1938 to 27-09-1938 the post office changed hands several times between the Czechs and Free Corps people of the Sudeten German Party.


Reichenburg and Maffersdorf
The industrial cities of Reichenberg and Maffersdorf (today Liberec and Vratislavice nad Nisou) are located in the northern Sudeten area of German origin, close to the borders with Germany and Poland.
Similar but distinguishable hand stamp overprints were used at the two post offices.
The main distinguishing features are the position and shape of the call sign, as well as the imprint color.


Rumburg
The city of Rumburg (Rumburk) is located on the Mandau in the north of the Czech Republic, near the German border.
The district of Rumburg (so-called North Bohemian Netherlands) consisted of about 50 places, 42 of them with their own post offices. The main and distribution post office was Rumburg.
The area was cleared by the Czech administration on September 21-22, 1938.


Sudeten Deutsches Niederland
See a previous post in this thread.


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HockeyNut

01 Jan 2020
12:25:21pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

I do not have a lot of these local stamps.
But the ones I got I will display here.

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ASCH nr 1-5

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KARLSBAD Nr 10-15

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KARLSBAD Nr 30-38

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REICHENBERG Nr 21-24

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REICHENBERG Nr 45B

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RUMBURG 1-9

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RUMBURG Nr 21-23

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RUMBURG Nr 25

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RUMBURG 36-43


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RUMBURG 49-52

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HockeyNut

02 Jan 2020
02:00:29pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

General Gouvernement

The General Government (German: Generalgouvernement, Polish: Generalne Gubernatorstwo), also referred to as the General Governorate for the occupied Polish Region (German: Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete), was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, Slovakia and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The newly occupied Second Polish Republic was split into three zones: the General Government in its centre, Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany in the west, and Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union in the east.
The territory was expanded substantially in 1941, after the German Invasion of the Soviet Union, to include the new District of Galicia.
The basis for the formation of the General Government was the "Annexation Decree on the Administration of the Occupied Polish Territories".
Announced by Hitler on October 8, 1939, it claimed that the Polish government had totally collapsed.
This rationale was utilized by the German Supreme Court to reassign the identity of all Polish nationals as stateless subjects, with the exception of the ethnic Germans of interwar Poland—who, disregarding international law, were named the only rightful citizens of the Third Reich.

The General Government was run by Germany as a separate administrative unit for logistical purposes.
When the Wehrmacht forces invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941 (Operation Barbarossa), the area of the General Government was enlarged by the inclusion of the Polish regions previously annexed to the USSR.
Within days East Galicia was overrun and incorporated into the District of Galicia.
Until 1945, the General Government comprised much of central, southern, and southeastern Poland within its prewar borders (and of modern-day Western Ukraine), including the major Polish cities of Warsaw, Kraków, Lwów (now Lviv, renamed Lemberg), Lublin (see Lublin Reservation), Tarnopol (see history of Tarnopol Ghetto), Stanis?awów (now Ivano-Frankivsk, renamed Stanislau; see Stanis?awów Ghetto), Drohobycz, and Sambor (see Drohobycz and Sambor Ghettos) and others.
Geographical locations were renamed in German.

The administration of the General Government was composed entirely of German officials, with the intent that the area was to be colonized by Germanic settlers who would reduce the local Polish population to the level of serfs before their eventual biological extermination.
The Nazi German rulers of the Generalgouvernement had no intention of sharing power with the locals throughout the war, regardless of their ethnicity and political orientation.
The authorities rarely mentioned the name "Poland" in legal correspondence.
The only exception to this was the General Government's Bank of Issue in Poland (Polish: Bank Emisyjny w Polsce, German: Emissionbank in Polen).

Source : Wikipedia

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HockeyNut

02 Jan 2020
02:08:24pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

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Nr 1 - 13

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Nr 14 - 39

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Nr 40 - 51

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Nr 52 - 55

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Nr 56 - 58

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Nr 59 - 62

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Nr 71 - 82

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HockeyNut

02 Jan 2020
02:13:33pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

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Nr 83 - 88

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Nr 105 - 109

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Nr 113 - 116

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Dienstmarken 1 - 15

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Dienstmarken 16 - 24

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Dienstmarken 25 - 36

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Zustellungsmarken 1-4

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HockeyNut

02 Jan 2020
02:19:08pm

re: interesting facts and explanations

The following pictures are no stamps but so-called "Evidence marks".

They were inserted in the passports of the railway workers.
This version with the imprint 1944 for the district "General Governement"

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