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Middle East/All : BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction, and Part 1. Palestine

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rrraphy
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Retired Ap. Book Mod, Pres Golden Gate Stamp Club, Hi Tech Consultant
18 Jul 2019
02:51:06pm

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PART 1. INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION: Coming soon, (still in preliminary form), I will be doing a series of articles on the stamps of the "BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST"



HISTORY: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST
The partitioning of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918. The partitioning was planned in several agreements made by the Allies early in the course of World War I, notably the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
The huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. The Ottoman Empire had been the leading Islamic state in geopolitical, cultural and ideological terms. The partitioning of the Ottoman Empire led to the rise in the Middle East of Western powers such as Britain and France and brought the creation of the modern Arab world and the Republic of Turkey.
Resistance to the influence of these powers came from the Turkish national movement but did not become widespread in the post-Ottoman states until after World War II.

IN CONTEXT: FRENCH AND BRITISH MANDATE IN THE REGION
:
The League of Nations mandate granted French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon and British Mandate for Mesopotamia (later Iraq) and British Mandate for Palestine, later divided into Mandatory Palestine and Emirate of Transjordan (1921-1946). The Ottoman Empire's possessions in the Arabian Peninsula became the Kingdom of Hejaz, which was annexed by the Sultanate of Nejd (today Saudi Arabia), and the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. The Empire's possessions on the western shores of the Persian Gulf were variously annexed by Saudi Arabia (Alahsa and Qatif), or remained British protectorates (Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar) and became the Arab States of the Persian Gulf.

After the Ottoman government collapsed completely it signed the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920. However, the Turkish War of Independence forced the European powers to return to the negotiating table before the treaty could be ratified. The Europeans and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey signed and ratified the new Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, superseding the Treaty of Sèvres and solidifying most of the territorial issues. One unresolved issue, the dispute between the Kingdom of Iraq and the Republic of Turkey over the former province of Mosul was later negotiated under the League of Nations in 1926. The British and French partitioned the eastern part of the Middle East, also called Greater Syria, between them in the Sykes–Picot Agreement. Other secret agreements were concluded with Italy and Russia.
The Balfour Declaration, 1917 encouraged the international Zionist movement to push for a Jewish homeland in the Palestine region. While a part of the Triple Entente, Russia also had wartime agreements preventing it from participating in the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after the Russian Revolution. The Treaty of Sèvres formally acknowledged the new League of Nations mandates in the region, the independence of Yemen, and British sovereignty over Cyprus.

THE BRITISH MANDATE AND BRITISH INFLUENCE IN THE MIDDLE EAST
This series of articles will focus on the Middle East Areas of British Influence. Note that some predate the fall of the Ottoman Empire. The British had many Post Offices in foreign countries in the region, some of major significance, and they are not all covered. I call on the British stamps specialists to add information where needed, as I don't specialize in British related but rather focus on French related territories.

This will parallel the series of articles I published elsewhere on the French Mandate Territories in the Middle East.

ast. https://stamporama.com/discboard/disc_main.php?action=20&id=15387#115599

I will spend less time on the description of the historical/political environment, and more on the STAMPS of these territories.
Those who want more political and historical information can follow many of the following links....as well as many others not consulted here. I will probably add to these links as the write up of the various sections are completed.

SOURCE REFERENCES:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partitioning_of_the_Ottoman_Empire

https://www.google.com/#q=balfour+declaration

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Mandate_for_Palestine_(legal_instrument)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emirate_of_Transjordan

http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/his_transjordan.html

http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/transjordan.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Mandate_for_Mesopotamia_(legal_instrument)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandatory_Iraq

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Hejaz_and_Nejd

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_history_of_Yemen

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_of_Aden

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_S%C3%A8vres

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Preliminary)
BRITISH MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Structure of the Series:
This will be a multiple part series, and it will be restructured as we go along. This table of contents is peliminary and may be modified. Please contribute what you can, and with your permission I will incorporate relevent info into the body of the articles, as the British area is not as much an area of my expertise as the French section.
Scheduling: I will not follow the preliminary chronological list below, but will publish articles as they get ready to print (and not necessarily in sequence).

Preliminary Table of Contents
Part 1?. Palestine
Part 2?. Transjordan
Part 3?. Mesopotamia and Iraq
Part 4?. Hejaz and Nejd (Saudi Arabia) 4.a Hejaz 4.b Nejd
Part 5?. Yemen
Part 6?. Other Gulf territories
6.1 Aden
6.2 Others not included (Kuwait, Muscat, Oman, Quatar, Emirates etc.. )

Also NOT included here but planned at a future date:
7. Egypt,
8. Sudan
9. Cyprus
Also :
10. Libya (Italian influence)

rrr.....

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"E. Rutherford: All science is either physics or stamp collecting."
Calstamp
19 Jul 2019
01:07:56am
re: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction, and Part 1. Palestine


Mr. Rrraphy...

Read your treatise during today’s lunch hour.

A wonderful example of scholarly philatelic research. Your enthusiasm for the topic clearly comes though. And the accompanying pages from your personal collection serve to buttress the narrative.

Agree with your observation that while much of the material presesented therein is not particularly high catalogue value, the relative scarcity of quality examples is what serves as the challenge.

A truely fascinating part of the world.

Jim in SoCal

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kgvistamps
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Collecting King George VI from all countries, and King Edward VII and King George V from the West Indies.
19 Jul 2019
10:42:03am
re: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction, and Part 1. Palestine

I have been posting my collection on my web site. I have a few areas covered that might supplement your posts.
As you will see, I am still missing some items. Please feel free to contact me if you have any of the missing stamps.
Here are the links in case you are interested:

Palestine Mandate 1927 Pictorial Stamps Overview
http://www.kgvistamps.com/articles/PalestineMandate-1927/PalestineMandate-1927.html

Palestine Mandate Stamp Collection
http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/PalestineMandate/PalestineMandate.htm

Palestine Occupation by both Egypt and Jordan Stamp Collection
http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/PalestineOccupation/PalestineOccupation.htm

TransJordan Stamp Collection
http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/Transjordan/Transjordan.htm

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rrraphy
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Retired Ap. Book Mod, Pres Golden Gate Stamp Club, Hi Tech Consultant
19 Jul 2019
03:17:13pm

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re: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction, and Part 1. Palestine

Very impressive Tom, and a perfect addition to my "work in progress" collection documenting my efforts, and the articles I am in the process of completing, descibing (briefly) the historical/geographical context and the challenges of building up such a collection.
I appreciate the fact that you show mostly Mint stamps. This is quite some work, and I am VERY impressed.!


In my scans I will display by choice, either Used, or a combination of Used and Mint, as in my Mint-only collection is often less complete than I would have hoped for.
I will include links to your site, on each related topic, as they will be a welcome addition, especially for those wanting to dig deeper. Any one else wishing to contribute, please let me know.

The real challenge, for countries such as Transjordan (pre-Jordan), Mesopotamia (pre-Iraq), Hejaz and Nejd (pre-Saudi Arabia) and Palestine, are the early stamps, rare and pricey! For Egypt, the early years 1866-1914 are Turkish Zuserainty related, while the British protectorate covers 1914-1922. Pre-1954 British Sudan stamps seem easier to find, as are the pre-1965 British Aden issued stamps.
I will show what I have so far. This shows the on-going challenge faced to fill in more slots without breaking the bank, or even just finding some of the rarities anywhere and at any price!

In the first article (coming this week-end) I will cover the stamps of pre-mandate Palestine from 1918 to 1948. I will not include the specialty pages related to paper varieties, color variations etc for the pictorial series (your pages are impressive, Tom), but I may show off a few cancellation scans, just for the fun of it. Thanks again for this great reference material.
rrr...

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"E. Rutherford: All science is either physics or stamp collecting."
Winedrinker
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19 Jul 2019
06:00:01pm
re: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction, and Part 1. Palestine

Wonderful information. I look forward to your Egypt and Sudan supplements. Anything on King Farouk would be golden. I appreciate how he enforced good stamp design during his reign. Priorities. Cheers.

Wine

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kgvistamps
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Collecting King George VI from all countries, and King Edward VII and King George V from the West Indies.
19 Jul 2019
06:17:41pm
re: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction, and Part 1. Palestine

Glad to hear these will help the project. Here are some additional Middle East page scans that might be helpful.

Aden Reference Collection - 1937 - 1952

http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/Aden-KGVI/Aden-KGVI.htm

Aden States Reference Collection - 1942 - 1951

http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/Aden-States/Aden-States.htm

Bahrain Reference Collection - 1938 - 1952

http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/Bahrain-KGVI/Bahrain-KGVI.htm

Kuwait Reference Collection - 1939 - 1952

http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/Kuwait-KGVI/Kuwait-KGVI.htm

Muscat & Oman Reference Collection - 1944 - 1951

http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/Muscat-KGVI/Muscat-KGVI.htm

Sudan Reference Collection - 1897 - 1960

http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/Sudan/Sudan.htm



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rrraphy
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Retired Ap. Book Mod, Pres Golden Gate Stamp Club, Hi Tech Consultant
20 Jul 2019
01:13:30am

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re: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction, and Part 1. Palestine

Winedrinker: Re

Quote:

" Anything on King Farouk would be golden. I appreciate how he enforced good stamp design during his reign. Priorities. Cheers."


Wine


I posted this in 2017, about King Farouk
Quote:

"re: King Farouk We Hate You stamps
King Farouk was a pretty disgusting character but also a passionate stamp collector.
Many of these barred stamps exist with double overprints (most are counterfeited).

King Farouk's stamp collection was sold after he was deposed, and you can still buy items with certificates authenticating them as belonging to him.

On many of his state visits, the countries he visited issued special stamp prints with deliberate errors, and offered them to the king as state visit presents! There are many one time special run sheets with inverted, mis-perforated and erroneous colors in the original King Farouk collection. Not sure if anyone has figured out how to value these? Cinderella like, maybe? Errors? No way!

rrr...

Incidentally, the officers who organized the coup were fairly junior, but the figure head of the coup that toppled him was General Naguib in 1954, a very popular senior general. King Farouk was despized in Egypt. Nasser, one of the leaders of the coup, removed Naguib from power in 1954 and proclaimed himself prime minister. In 1956 he was elected president. a little bit of history..."



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rrraphy
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Retired Ap. Book Mod, Pres Golden Gate Stamp Club, Hi Tech Consultant
25 Jul 2019
02:51:34pm

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re: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction, and Part 1. Palestine

PART 1. Stamps of PALESTINE (British Mandate era)

INTRODUCTION:
This is an area very well covered in literature, articles, and reference books.
I will briefly summarize information relevant to stamps.
Please refer to the excellent specialized catalog ( book): The Stamps and Postal Stationary of Palestine Mandate 1918-1948 by David Dorfman, Published by Edward G. Rosen (Redwood City, CA)

I have also included a very handy Palestine Overprint Identifier (printed by HGP Philatelists, Inc) which I find vital in correctly identifying the 1918-1822 overprints of British EEF stamps issued under British Military Occupation. Somehow, it is an area that most stamp dealers mess up, so use it to correctly identifying the o/p stamps, which often look alike, and offer a challenge.
There are many variations of papers, perforations and printing errors that I will not touch upon.

The EEF stamps were used in Palestine, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria and in parts of Cilicia and northeastern Egypt. (pay attention to their cancellations, and also watch out for the the various overprints) This discussion applies to Palestine Stamps.

For another handy reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postage_stamps_and_postal_history_of_Palestine

POSTAL HISTORY
THE POSTAGE STAMPS:
In the era of modern postage, the postal administrations in Palestine have included Austrian, French, Italian, German, Egyptian, and Russian post offices (through arrangements made with the Ottoman Empire), the Egyptian Expeditionary Forces, the British Mandate, and various interim authorities in the lead up to and after the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. Since 1948, postal services have been provided by Egypt, Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian National Authority.
When discussing the pre-1948 postal history, most philatelists refer to this geographic area as Palestine leading up to the area's two current postal administrations, that of the State of Israel and the Palestinian National Authority.

BRITISH MANDATE STAMPS.
This only describes the British Mandate Era (1918-1948). Reference history information is widely available and will not be included.

Refer to the Palestine Overprint Identifier for the overprints (First scan below)
Bale is the de facto standard for Palestine catalog Numbering. The Scott system is very poor and confusing.

TYPES OF STAMPS
The Lithographed Issue Scott #1-3a Bale 1-4 First issued Feb 2018
The Typographed Issue Scott #4-14 Bale 5-15 First Issued July 2018
The First Local Overprint -Serif - Jerusalem I. Scott 15-25 Bale 16-29
Perf 15x14
Perf 14
The Second Local Overprint Issue -Serif - Jerusalem II (larger o/p type) Scott 15-29 Bale 30-46
Perf 15x14
Perf 14
Narrow Setting
The Third Local Overprint Issue - Serif - Jerusalem III Scott 15-25 Bale 47-59
Perf 15x14
Perf 14
The London I Issue - Sans Serif - Sept 1921 Scott 37-47 Bale 60-70
The London II Issue - Sans Serif - Sept 1922 Scott 48-62 Bale 71-89
Perf 15x14
Perf 14
The Pictorial Stamps (1927-1942) Scott 63-84 Bale 90-103
Perf 13.5x14.5
Perf 14 (coils)
Postage Due Stamps
First Issue 1923 Scott J1-J5
Second Issue 1924 Scott J6-J11
Third Issue 1928 Scott J12-J20
Coils (1941) Scott J12a, J14a
There are many varieties of papers, non standard perforations, color variations and printing errors.


MY COLLECTION

My collection (Both Mint and Used) is a long way from being complete especially for the Mint stamps. And while some of the more difficult (higher denomination) missing stamps are occasionally found on eBay and other sites, they invariably fetch fairly high asking prices and bidding has been intense for the rarer items.
The pictorial stamps on the other hand are widely available and inexpensive. For the specialist, paper varieties and color variations (not shown here) offer a good challenge, as are the cancellations post offices.
It has been a slow process filling the empty slots in my collection. This area is widely collected in the US, G. Britain and Israel, and I have seen them displayed in superb stamp exhibits at stamp shows. What I have here is far from being considered top rated.
I am showing the pages of my Used collection (more complete than the Mint collection, and always more interesting to me) for illustration, and for reference.
I would like here to reference you to the excellent complementary information made available by "kgvistamps"

Quote:

"re: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction
I have been posting my collection on my web site. I have a few areas covered that might supplement your posts.
As you will see, I am still missing some items. Please feel free to contact me if you have any of the missing stamps.
Here are the links in case you are interested:

Palestine Mandate 1927 Pictorial Stamps Overview
http://www.kgvistamps.com/articles/PalestineMandate-1927/PalestineMandate-1927.html

Palestine Mandate Stamp Collection
http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/PalestineMandate/PalestineMandate.htm

Palestine Occupation by both Egypt and Jordan Stamp Collection
http://www.kgvistamps.com/PageScans/PalestineOccupation/PalestineOccupation.htm"




SCANS
The first scan is the handy Palestine Overprint identifier.
The following stamp pages are organized according to the Bale catalog system, but the number (shown faintly) under the stamps refer to Scott Numbers. The Scott catalog numbering system is confusing and poor!

SCANS coming next

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CANCELLATIONS

I don't specialize in cancellations, but it is an area that can be of interest to some specialty collectors, so I just added a bit of extra information in the 3 scans below:

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kgvistamps
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Collecting King George VI from all countries, and King Edward VII and King George V from the West Indies.
26 Jul 2019
08:58:54am
re: BRITISH INFLUENCE AND MANDATE TERRITORIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Introduction, and Part 1. Palestine

Nice work on your Palestine collection. Thank you for sharing it.

The pictorial set has four listed papers according to both the Bale and Commonwealth catalogs. It is hard to see them from images, but if you get an accumulation you can find at least two of them. Try looking at the backs of the stamps placed against black paper as you compare them. Here are the listed papers and when they were used, and a few comments on what to look for:

1927 Thin Paper - The paper is more transparent compared to the thick woven paper, with no texture.

1928 - 1932 Thick Paper with Vertical Ribbing - You will ridges that run from top to bottom

1937 Thick Paper with Horizontal Ribbing - The ridges run from side to side. If you can't decide whether the ridges are horizontal vertical, realize that the horizontal ribbing is pretty rare - so you probably have the vertical ribbing.

1936 White Woven Paper - The paper is not very transparent and appears whiter than the thin paper. The three higher values were only printed on the White Wove paper, so they are easy to isolate.

These papers are described in more detail with images on my web site. See this URL for more details.

http://www.kgvistamps.com/articles/PalestineMandate-1927/PalestineMandate-1927.html

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